Употреба на бензодијазепини кај пациенти на метадонски третман

Tatjana Petrushevska

Извадок


ЦЕЛИ: Студијата имаше за цел да ја истажи употребата/злоупотребата на БЗД кај пациентите на ММТ и да укаже на местата и препораките за интервенција.

МАТЕРИЈАЛ И МЕТОДИ: Истражувањето преставува квантитативна аналитичка студија на пресек (cross sectional study) која се имплементираше од декемри 2012 до јули 2013 година. Се спроведе анонимно неповрзано анкетирање на 458 зависници кои се на ММТ, во однос на употребата/злоупотребата на БЗД. Селекцијата на испитаниците за студијата (испитуваната и контролната група) е направена според однапред утврдени инклузиони и ексклузиони критериуми, а тајноста на добиените одговори и коментари беше загарантирана. Се користеше стандардизиран прашалник наменет за ваков вид на истражување составен од пет целини и тоа социо-демографски податоци, историја на употреба на психоактивни супстанции, употреба на БЗД, здравствена состојба и лични ставови за тврдења во однос на разновидни животни ситуации, состојби и чуства.

РЕЗУЛТАТИ: Преваленцата на злоупотреба на БЗД кај пациентите на ММТ е 86.66%.Просечната старост во однос на првата проба на БЗД изнесува 21.9 ± 6.1 година. Првиот пат БЗД биле пропишани од лекар, за 24.1% од испитаниците. БЗД без рецепт користеле,  85.8%. Во моментот примаат терапија со БЗД на рецепт 22.4%; обично користат повеќе од пропишаната доза  38.7%; користат пропишана доза 17.3%; користат помалку од пропишаното 6.8%;  немале никогаш рецепт за БЗД 37.2%. Користеле БЗД пред да влезат во ММТ 70.7% од испитаниците во испитуваната група. БЗД го зголемиле/ започнале по почетокот на ММТ 60.1%. Во животот секогаш користеле само БЗД кои им биле пропишани од лекар 7.8% од испитаниците во испитуваната група. За почеток на користење на непропишани БЗД во испитуваната група  41.9% ја селектирале причината “за да можам да спијам“ следено со “од  љубопитство - да видам каков ефект имаат“ 38.1%, “да се релаксирам“;  „да го намалам притисокот“ 36.4%, “за да се справам со стресот и напнатоста“ 29.% и “за да се чувствувам добро“ 26.3%. Најмалку селектирана причина е “за да со поминам убаво со моите пријатели“ 5.8%, и “за да се почуствувам „high““ 7.7%. Во последниот месец, 50% од пациентите во испитуваната група користеле БЗД над 20 дена, во последните 3 месеци 50% односно 70%  од испитаниците користеле БЗД консеквентно над 66 дена односно над 90 дена. Анализата за користење на БЗД во текот на денот покажа над 3 пати дневно, а  над 50% од испитаниците користеле консеквентно БЗД над 10 односно над 7.5 години во текот на животот. Во последниот месец, кај 70% од пациентите дневната доза е над 50 мг. Во целиот примерок на пациенти на ММТ како најчест здравствен проблем е селектирана употребата на хероин кај 42% следена со хепатитис Ц кај 41.6% и вознемиреност/стрес кај 33.5%. Пропишана терапија за психолошки/емоционални проблеми (вклучувајќи вознемиреност или депресија),  примаат 54.3% од испитаниците во испитуваната група. Кај 75% од испитаниците чуството на депресија е присутно во над 3 дена во неделата.

ЗАКЛУЧОЦИ: Анализата покажа дека пациентите започнале/го зголемиле внесувањето на БЗД за време на ММТ и имаат сигнификантно зголемено ризично однесување во насока на продолжување и/или повторно земање на дрога, можност за предозирање и инфекции со крвно преносливи заболувања. Затоа е потребно развивање на ефективни третман програми кои во исто време ќе имаат за цел надминување на проблемите со опијатната зависност, симптомите на ансиозност и злоупотреба на БЗД.


Клучни зборови


употреба на бензодијазепини (БЗД); третман со одржување со метадон (ММТ); злоупотреба на супстанции; епидемиологија

Комплетен текст:

PDF [Macedonian] (English)

References


Sternbach L.H. The benzodiazepine story. Basle: Editiones Roche. 1980.

Cooper, Jack R; Floyd E. Bloom, Robert H. Roth (January 15, 1996). The Complete Story of the Benzodiazepines, seventh (in Eng), USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195103998.

Ciraulo, DA, Knapp CM. The Pharmacology of Nonalcohol Sedative Hypnotics. In Principles of Addiction Medicine Fourth Edition. Ries RK, Fiellin DA, Miller SC, Saitz R, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009. pp. 99-112

O’Brien CP. Benzodiazepine use, abuse, and dependence. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2005; 66: 28–33.

Longo LP, Johnson B. Treatment of insomnia in substance abusing patients. Psychiatric Annals, 1998; 28: 154-159.

Lader, M.H. The psychopharmacology of addiction. Oxford:Oxford Medical Publications.1988.

Marks, J. The benzodiazepines: Use, overuse, misuse, abuse.Lancaster, U.K.: MTP.1978

Cooperstock, R.&Hill J.The effects of tranquillization:Benzodiazepine use in Canada. Toronto: Ministry of National Health and Welfare.1982

Tan KR, Brown M, Labouébe G, et al. Neural bases for addictive properties of benzodiazepines. Nature 2010; 463(7282):769–774.

Wesson, eds.The benzodiazepines: current standards for medical practice. Lancaster England, MTP Press, 1985:87-96.

UN Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances,Vienna,UN,1971

https://www.incb.org/incb/en/psychotropic-substances/1971_convention.html (accessed 20 January 2014).

Cascade E, Kalali AH. Use of benzodiazepines in the treatment of anxiety.Psychiatry (Edgmont)2008;5(9):21-22.

Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA.Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective. Curr Drug Metab. 2008; 9(8):827-44.

Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA. Metabolism of benzodiazepine and non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic-hypnotic drugs: an analytical point of view. Curr Drug Metab. 2010;11(9):815-29.

Laing R, Waning B, Gray A, Ford N, 't Hoen E: 25 years of the WHO essential medicines lists: progress and challenges. Lancet 2003, 361(9370):1723-1729.

http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/en/index.html(accessed 25 May 2014).

Van Hulten R, Teeuw B, Bakker A, Leufkens HG. Initial benzodiazepine use and improved health-related quality of life. Pharm World Sci. 2005; 27(1):41-6.

Fox C, Liu H, Kaye AD. Antianxiety agents. In: Manchikanti L, Trescot AM, Christo PJ, et al, eds. Clinical Aspects of Pain Medicine and Interventional Pain Management: A Comprehensive Review. Paducah, KY: ASIP Publishing, 2011; 543-552.

Lal R, Gupta S, Rao R, Kattimani S. Emergency management of substance overdose and withdrawal. Substance Use Disorder. World Health Organisation.82; 2007.

Rudolph U, Möhler H. "GABA-based therapeutic approaches: GABAA receptor subtype functions". Current Opinion in Pharmacology 2006; 6(1): 18–23.

Rudolph, U. and Möhler, H. Analysis of GABAA receptor function and dissection of the pharmacology of benzodiazepines and general anesthetics through mouse genetics. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 44, 2004; 475–498.

Korpi, E. R. and Sinkkonen, S. T. GABA(A) receptor subtypes as targets for neuropsychiatric drug development. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2006; 109, 12–32.

Amrein R, Hetzel W, Hartmann D, Lorscheid T: Clinical pharmacology of flumazenil.Eur J Anaesthesiol Suppl 1988, 2:65-80

Hevers W, Lüddens H. "The diversity of GABAA receptors. Pharmacological and electrophysiological properties of GABAA channel subtypes". Mol Neurobiol 1998;18 (1): 35–86. doi:10.1007/BF02741459.

Jacob et al., Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2008.

Charles E. Griffin, Adam M. Kaye, Franklin Rivera Bueno, Alan D. Kaye, Benzodiazepine Pharmacology and Central Nervous System–Mediated Effects The Ochsner Journal 2013; 13:214–223.

Kaye AD, Gayle K, Kaye AM. Pharmacological agents in moderate and deep sedation. In: Urman RD, Kaye AD, editors. Moderate and Deep Sedation. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press 2012. pp. 8–32.

Lal R, Gupta S, Rao R, Kattimani S. Emergency management of substance overdose and withdrawal. Substance Use Disorder. World Health Organisation 2007, p.82.

King C, Rios G, Green M, Tephly T (2000). "UDP-glucuronosyltransferases". Curr. Drug Metab. 1 (2): 143–61.

Panus P, Katzung BG, Jobst E, Tinsley S, Masters SB, Trevor AJ. Sedative-hypnotic drugs. In McGraw-Hill Medical Ed. Pharmacology for the Physical Therapist (1 ed.). 2008, p.192.

Lin JH. Species similarities and differences in pharmacokinetics. Drug Metab Dispos 1995; 23: 1008–1021.

Ashton H. Benzodiazepines: How They Work and How to Withdraw. Newcastle upon Tyne, U.K.: Newcastle University 2002.

WHO. Program on substance abuse: Rational use of Benzodiazepines. WHO/PSA/96.11,1996.

European Medicines Agency. Summary of product characteristics for benzodiazepines as anxiolytics or hypnotics. 1994. www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Scientific_guideline/2009/09/WC500003774 (accessed May 2014).

Egan M, Moride Y, Wolfson C, Monette J. Long-term continuous use of benzodiazepines by older adults in Quebec: prevalence, incidence and risk factors. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;48:811-6.

Neutel CI. The epidemiology of long-term benzodiazepine use. Int Rev Psychiatry 2005;17:189-97.

Vinkers CH, Olivier B. Mechanisms underlying tolerance after long-term benzodiazepine use: a future for subtype-selective GABA(A) receptor modulators? Adv Pharmacol Sci 2012;2012:416864.

Lal R, Gupta S, Rao R, Kattimani S. Emergency management of substance overdose and withdrawal. Substance Use Disorder. World Health Organisation 2007,p. 82.

WHO. Program on substance abuse: Rational use of Benzodiazepines. WHO/PSA/96.11,1996.

Balter MB. Prevalence of medical use of prescription drugs. Minimal interventions to decrease long-term use of benzodiazepines in primary care: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Gen Pract. 2011;61(590): e573–e578.

Kayalvili Mugunthan, Treasure McGuire, and Paul Glasziou, Minimal interventions to decrease long-term use of benzodiazepines in primary care: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Gen Pract. 2011; 61(590):573–578.

Dhondt ADF, Derksen P, Hooijer C, Heycop van, Ham B ten, Gent PP van, Heeren T.Depressogenic medication as an aetiological factor in major depression. An analysis in a clinical population of depressed elderly people. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1999; 14:875–881.

Van Vliet P, van der Mast RC, van den Broek M, Westendorp RG, de Craen AJ.Use of benzodiazepines, depressive symptoms and cognitive function in old age. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2008.

King MB. Is there still a role for benzodiazepines in general practice? Br J Gen Pract 1992; 42(358): 202–205.

Zandstra SM, Furer JW, Lisdonke EH, Bor JHJ, Weel C, Zitman FG. Different study criteria affect the prevalence of benzodiazepine use. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2002;37:139–144.

Demyttenaere K, Bonnewyn A, Bruffaerts R, De Girolamo G, Gasquet I, Kovess V, Haro JM, Alonso J.

Clinical factors influencing the prescription of antidepressants and benzodiazepines: results from the European study of the epidemiology of mental disorders (ESEMeD). J Affect Disord. 2008.

Heberlein A, Bleich S, Kornhuber J, Hillemacher T. Benzodiazepine dependence: causalities and treatment options. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr, 2009; 77 (1): 7–15.

Johnell K, Weitoft GR, Fastbom J: Sex differences in inappropriate drug use: a register-based study of over 600,000 older people. Ann Pharmacother, 2009; 43(7):1233-8

Caroline M. Sonnenberg, Ellis J. M. Bierman, Dorly J. H. Deeg, Hannie C. Comijs, Willem van Tilburg,.Ten-year trends in benzodiazepine use in the Dutch population 2012.Soc.Psychiatr.Epidemiology 2012; 47:293-301.

Luijendijk HJ, Tiemeler H, Hofman A, Heeringa J, Stricker BH. Determinants of chronic benzodiazepine use in the elderly: a longitudinal study. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;65:593–599.

Aliya Kassam and Scott B Patten. Hypnotic use in a population-based sample of over thirty-five thousand interviewed Canadians. Popul Health Metr. 2006.

Lagnaoui R, Depont F, Fourrier A, Abouelfath A, Bégaud B, Verdoux H, Moore N. Patterns and correlates of benzodiazepine use in the French general population. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Sep;60(7):523-9.

Windle A, Elliot E, Duszynski K, Moore V. Benzodiazepine prescribing in elderly Australian general practice patients. Aust N Z J Public Health 2007;31:379-81.

Gabe J, Lipshitz-Phillips S: Evil necessity? The meaning of benzo use for women from a general practice. Sociology of Health and Illness 1982, 4(2):201-10.

Ohayon MM. Epidemiology of insomnia: what we know and what we still need to learn. Sleep Med Rev 2002; 6: 83–96.

United States Government; U.S. Department of Health and human services . "Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2004: National Estimates of Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits". Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Archived from the original on 31 March 2008.

Roache JD, Meisch RA. Findings from self-administration research on the addiction potential of benzodiazepines. Psychiatric Annals. 1995;25(3):153–7.

Lance P. Longo, Brian Johnson, Addiction: Part I. Benzodiazepines—Side Effects, Abuse Risk and Alternatives. Am Fam Physician. 2000;1(7):2121-2128.

Sophia Rosman, Marc Le Vaillant and Nathalie Pelletier-Fleury. Gaining insight into benzodiazepine prescribing in General Practice in France: a data-based study.BMC Family Practice 2011, doi:10.1186/1471-2296-12-28.

Meiler A. Minob, A. Chattona, B. Broersc,Benzodiazepine use in a methadone maintenance programme: patient characteristics and the physician’s dilemma, Sc hweizerarchiv für neurologieundpsychiatrie 2005.

Lader MH. Limitations on the use of benzodiazepines in anxiety and insomnia: are they justified? Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1999.

Lader M.Benzodiazepines revisited--will we ever learn? Addiction. 2011 Dec; 106(12):2086-109.

Chakos MH, Glick ID, Miller AL, et al: Baseline use of concomitant psychotropic medications to treat schizophrenia in the CATIE trial. Psychiatric Services 2006; 57:1094–1101.

Novick D, Bousono M, Suarez D, et al:Use of concomitant medication with antipsychotictreatment in outpatients with schizophrenia: results from the European Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes (SOHO) study. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 2005; 29:972–982.

Clark RE, Xie H, Brunette MF: Benzodiazepine prescription practices and substance abuse in persons with severe mental illness. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2004; 65:151–155.

Karagianis J, Novick D, Pecenak J, et al:Worldwide Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes (W-SOHO): baseline characteristics of pan-regional observational data from more than 17,000 patients. International Journal of Clinical Practice 2009; 63:1578–1588.

Verma SK, Subramaniam M, Chong SA, et al: Substance abuse in schizophrenia: a Singapore perspective. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2002; 37:326–328.

Lader M. History of benzodiazepine dependence. Journal of substance abuse treatment. 1991; 8 (1-2): 53–59.

Ashton H: The diagnosis and management of benzodiazepine dependence. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2005, 18:249-255

Briot M. Report on the proper use of psychotropic medications Report (in French: Rapport sur le bon usage des médicaments psychotropes) The Parliamentary Office of Health Policy (in French: L'Office parlementaire d'évaluation des politiques de santé), Paris; 2006.

[http://www.senat.fr/notice-rapport/2005/r05-422-notice.html] (accessed 20 May 2014).

Morin C, Bélanger L, Bernier F: Correlates of benzodiazepine use in individuals with insomnia. Sleep Med; 2004, 5:457-462.

Bramness, J., Skurtveit, S. and Morland, J.„Clinical impairment of benzodiazepines–relation between benzodiazepine concentrations and impairment in apprehended drivers“, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Volume 68, No 2, 2002. pp. 131–41.

Chouinard G: Issues in the clinical use of benzodiazepines: potency, withdrawal, and rebound. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2004, 65(5):7-12.

Charles E.GriffinIII, Adam M. Kaye, Franklin Rivera Bueno, and Alan D. Kaye. Benzodiazepine Pharmacology and Central Nervous System–Mediated Effects. The Ochsner Journal: Summer 2013, Vol. 13, No. 2,2013; pp. 214-223.

Chouinard G, Annable L, Fontaine R, Solyom L. Alprazolam in the treatment of generalized anxiety and panic disorders: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1982;77(3):229-233.

Nardi AE, Perna G. Clonazepam in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: an update. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006 May;21(3):131-142.

Chouinard G, Young SN, Annable L. Antimanic effect of clonazepam. Biol Psychiatry. 1983 Apr;18(4):451-466.

Guy Chouinard.The search for new off-label indications for antidepressant, antianxiety, antipsychotic and anticonvulsant drugs.Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN (Impact Factor: 5.34) 2006; 31(3):168-76.

David G Daniel. Recent developments in pharmacotherapy for the acutely psychotic patient. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 28(6 Suppl):S12-20. 2003.

François Curtin, Pierre Schulz. Clonazepam and lorazepam in acute mania: a Bayesian meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 3.52 Impact Factor 2004; 78(3):201-8.

Uzun S, Kozumplik O, Jakovljević M, Sedić B: Side effects of treatment withbenzodiazepines. Psychiatria Danubina 2010; 22(1):90-93.

Khong E, Sim MG, Hulse G: Benzodiazepine dependence. Aust FamPhysician 2004, 33:923-926.

Darke S, Ross J, Mills K, Teesson M, Williamson A, Havard A: Benzodiazepine use among heroin users: Baseline use, current use and clinical outcome. Drug Alcohol Rev 2010, 29(3):250-255.

Farnsworth MG: Benzodiazepine abuse and dependence: misconceptions and facts. J Fam Pract, 1990; 31(4):393-400.

Kaplan EM, DuPont RL: Benzodiazepines and anxiety disorders: a review for the practicing physician. J Clin Psychiatry, 2005; 21(6):941-950.

Hertz JA, Knight JR: Prescription drug misuse: a growing national problem. Adolesc Med Clin, , abstract xiii. 2006; 17(3):751-69.

Longo LP, Johnson B. Addiction: Part I. Benzodiazepines--side effects, abuse risk and alternatives. Am Fam Physician. 2000.

Petursson H, Lader MH: Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981, 283(6292):643-645.

Tyrer P, Rutherford D, Huggett T: Benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms and propranolol. Lancet 1981, 1(8219):520-522.

Lorna Marie, Benzodiazepines:Benefits versus risks.Journal of the Malta College of Pharmacy Practice Issue 13, 2007.

Royal College of Psychitrists, 1997. Benzodiazepines:risks, benefits or dependence.RoyalCollege of Psychiatrists, London,1997, Available from: http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/files/pdfversion/cr59.pdf (accessed 20 June 2014).

W. M. Compton andN.D.Volkow, “Abuse of prescription drugs and the risk of addiction,”Drug andAlcoholDependence, vol. 83, supplement 1, 2006; pp. S4–S7.

Angelo Giovanni Icro Maremmani, Luca Rovai, Fabio Rugani, Silvia Bacciardi, Matteo Pacini,3 Liliana Dell’Osso and Icro Maremmani.Clonazepam as Agonist Substitution Treatment for Benzodiazepine Dependence:A Case Report. Case Reports in Psychiatry,Volume 2013, Article ID 367594, 2013.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/367594(accessed June 2014).

Leonie Manthey et al. Correlates of Benzodiazepine Dependence in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, Addiction 2012.

Voyer P, Preville M, Roussel ME, et al. Factors Associated With Benzodiazepine Dependence Among Community-Dwelling Seniors. Journal of Community Health Nursing. 2009;26:101-113.

Kan CC, Hilberink SR, Breteler MHM. Determination of the main risk factors for benzodiazepine dependence using a multivariate and multidimensional approach. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2004;45:88-94.

Lavie E, Fatseas M, Denis C, et al. Benzodiazepine use among opiatedependent subjects in buprenorphine maintenance treatment: correlates of use, abuse and dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009;99:338-344.

Kurtz SP, Surratt HL, Levi-Minzi MA, et al. Benzodiazepine dependence among multidrug users in the club scene. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2011;119:99-105.

Mol AJJ, Gorgels WJMJ, Voshaar RCO, et al. Associations of benzodiazepine craving with other clinical variables in a population of general practice patients. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2005;46:353-360.

Cuevas de las C, Sanz E, de la Fuente J. Benzodiazepines: more“behavioural” addiction than dependence. Psychopharmacology.2003; 167:297-303.

Prodigy Guidance Hypnotic or anxiolytic dependence. Prodigy, Practical Support for Clinical Governance.2003.

http://www.prodigy.nhs.uk/guidance. asp?gt=Hypnotic/anxiolytic%20dependence (accessed July 2014).

Kelly R. Tan, et.al. Neural bases for addictive properties of benzodiazepines Journal of science Nature 463,2010; 769-774| doi:10.1038/nature08758.

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Well-Known Mechanism Underlies Benzodiazepines' Addictive Properties, NIDA Notes 2012.

Christiaan H. Vinkers and Berend Olivier Mechanisms Underlying Tolerance after Long-Term Benzodiazepine Use: A Future for Subtype-Selective Receptor Modulators? Advances in Pharmacological Sciences,Volume 2012, Article ID 416864,2012, p.19.

Barbera J, Shapiro C. Benefit-risk assessment of zaleplon in the treatment of insomnia. Drug Saf. 2005; 28(4):301-18.

Rickels K, Lucki I, Schweizer E, Garcia-Espana F, Case WG: Psychomotor performance of long-term benzodiazepine users before, during, and after benzodiazepine discontinuation. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1999, 19(2):107-113.

Salzman C: Issues and controversies regarding benzodiazepine use. NIDA Res Monogr 1993, 131:68-88.

Fox C, Liu H, Kaye AD. Manchikanti L, Trescot AM, Christo PJ, et al, eds. Clinical Aspects of Pain Medicine and Interventional Pain Management: A Comprehensive Review. Paducah, KY: ASIP Publishing. Antianxiety agents; 2011; pp. 543–552.

Ashton H. Toxicity and adverse consequences of benzodiazepine use. Psychiatric Annals. 1995; 25:158–65.

Janicak PG, Davis JM, Preskhorn SH, Ayd FJ. Principles and practice of psychopharmacotherapy. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins 1993:287.

Geene DS, Dockens RC, Salazar DE, et al. Coadministration of nefazadone and benzodiazepines. I. pharmacokinetic assessment. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1994;55:141.

Orriols L, Philip P, Moore N, Castot A, Gadegbeku B, Delorme B, Mallaret M, Lagarde E;Benzodiazepine-like hypnotics and the associated risk of road traffic accidents. CESIR Research Group. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011; 89(4):595-601.

Smink BE, Egberts AC, Lusthof KJ, Uges DR, de Gier JJ.The relationship between benzodiazepine use and traffic accidents: A systematic literature review. CNS Drugs. 2010.

Jones, A. W.; Holmgren, A.; Kugelberg, F. C. "Concentrations of scheduled prescription drugs in blood of impaired drivers: considerations for interpreting the results". Therapeutic Drug Monitor.2007; 29 (2): 248–260.

Cosbey, S. H."Drugs and the impaired driver in Northern Ireland: an analytical survey". Forensic Science International 1986; 32 (4): 245–58. doi:10.1016/0379-0738(86)90201-X. PMID 3804143.

Barbone F, McMahon AD, Davey PG, Morris AD, Reid IC, McDevitt DC, et al. Association of road-traffic accidents with benzodiazepine use. Lancet. 1998;352:1331–6.

Downey KK, Helmus TC, Schuster CR. Treatment of heroin-dependent polydrug abusers with contingency management and buprenorphine maintenance. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2000;8:176–84.

Peretti-Watel P, Spire B, Lert F, Obadia Y, VESPA Group. Drug use patterns and adherence to treatment among HIV-positive patients: evidence from a large sample of French outpatients. Drug Alcohol Depend 2006;82:71–9.

Francisco José Eiroa-Orosa, Christian Haasen, Uwe Verthein, Christoph Dilg, Ingo Schäfer, Jens Reimer. Benzodiazepine use among patients in heroin-assisted vs. methadone maintenance treatment: findings of the German randomized controlled trial. Drug and alcohol dependence 2010; 112(3):226-33.

Degenhardt L, Hall W. Patterns of co-morbidity betweenбlcohol use and other substance use in the Australian population.Drug Alcohol Rev 2003; 22:7–13.

Craib KJ, Spittal PM, Wood E, et al. Risk factors for elevated HIV incidence among aboriginal injection drug users in Vancouver. CMAJ 2003;168:19–24.

Patterson TL, Semple SJ, Zians JK, Strathdee SA. Methamphetamine-using HIV-positive men who have sex with men: correlates of polydrug use. J Urban Health 2005; 82 (Suppl 1):120–6.

Darke S, Ross J, Zador D, Sunjic S. Heroin-related deaths in New South Wales, Australia, 1992–1996. Drug Alcohol Depend 2000;60:141–50.

Ochoa KC, Hahn JA, Seal KH, Moss AR. Overdosing among young injection drug users in San Francisco. Addict Behav 2001; 26:453–60.

Cicero, T.J., Inciardi, J.A.Diversion and abuse of methadone prescribed for pain management. JAMA 293,2005 p.297-298.

Mattick, R.P., Kimber, J., Breen, C., Davoli, M.Buprenorphine maintenance versus placebo or methadone maintenance for opioid dependence. Cochrane Database Syst. CD002207.2008.

Lintzeris, N., Nielsen, S.Benzodiazepines, methadone and buprenorphine: interactions and clinical management. Am. J. Addict. 19; 2009; p.59-72.

Lei Li, Rassamee Sangthong, Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong, Edward Mcnei2 & Jianhua Li, Lifetime multiple substance use pattern among heroin users before entering methadone maintenance treatment clinic in Yunnan, Chinadar_168. Drug and Alcohol Review, 29; 2010;p. 420–425.

Specka M, Bonnet U, Heilmann M, Schifano F, Scherbaum N. Longitudinal patterns of benzodiazepine consumption in a German cohort of methadone maintenance treatment patients. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2011; 26:404–411.

Rooney S, Kelly G, Bamford L, Sloan D, O’Connor JJ. Co-abuse of opiates and benzodiazepines. Ir J Psychol Med. 1999; 168:36–41.

Posternak MA, Mueller TI: Assessing the risks and benefits of benzodiazepines for anxiety disorders in patients with a history of substance abuse or dependence. The American Journal on Addictions 2001, 10(1):48-68.

Busto U, Sellers EM, Naranjo CA, Cappell HD, Sanchez Craig M, Simpkins J: Patterns of benzodiazepine abuse and dependence. Br J Addict 1986, 81(1):87-94.

Backmund M, Meyer K, Henkel C, Soyka M, Reimer J, Schütz CG. Co-consumption of benzodiazepines in heroin users, methadone-substituted and codeine-substituted patients. J Addict Dis. 2005; 24(4):17-29.

Stitzer ML, Chutuape MA: Other substance use disorders in methadone treatment. In Methadone Treatment for Opioid Dependence. Edited by Strain EC, Stitzer ML. Baltimore, Maryland: The John Hopkins University Press; 1999:86-117.

Astals M, Diaz L, Domingo-Salvany A, et al.: Impact of co-occurring psychiatric disorders on retention in a methadone maintenance program: An 18-month follow-up study. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2009.

Gelkopf M, Weizman T, Melamed Y, et al.: Does psychiatric comorbidity affect drug abuse treatment outcome? A prospective assessment of drug abuse, treatment tenure and infectious diseases in an Israeli methadone maintenance clinic.Isr J Psychiatr Rel, 2006; 43:126-136.

Strain EC, Brooner RK, Bigelow GE: Clustering of multiple substance use and psychiatric diagnoses in opioid addicts.Drug Alcohol Depend 1991, 27:126-134.

Brooner K, King VL, Kidorf M, et al.: Psychiatric and substance use comorbidity among treatment-seeking opioid abusers. Arch Gen Psychiat 1997, 54:71-80.

Batki SL, Ferrando SJ, Manfredi L, et al.Psychiatric disorders, drug use and medical status in injection drug users with HIV disease. Am J Addict 1996, 5:249-258.

Brands B, Blake J, Marsh DC, Sproule B, Jeyapalan R, Li S. The impact of benzodiazepine use on methadone maintenance treatment outcomes. J Addict Dis. 2008.

Jones, J.D., Mogali, Comer, S.D. Polydrug abuse: A review of opioid and benzodiazepine combination use. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012; 125(1-2): 8–18.

Kahan M, Srivastava A, Wilson L, Gourlay D, Midmer D: Misuse of and dependence on opioids. Can Fam Physician 2006, 52:1081-1087.

Lintzeris N, Mitchell TB, Bond A, Nestor L, Strang J. Interactions on mixing diazepam with methadone or buprenorphine in maintenance patients. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006 ; 26(3):274-83.

Kamal F, Flavin S, Campbell F, Behan C, Fagan J, Smyth R: Factors affecting the outcome of methadone maintenance treatment in opiate dependence. Ir Med J. 2007,100(3):393.

Peles E, Schreiber S, Adelson M: 15-Year survival and retention of patients in a general hospital-affiliated methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) center in Israel. Drug Alcohol Depend 2010, 107(2-3):141-148.

Lintzeris N, Nielsen S. Benzodiazepines, methadone and buprenorphine: interactions and clinical management. Am J Addict. 2010; 19 (1):59-72.

Lavie E, Fatséas M, Denis C, Auriacombe M: Benzodiazepine use among opiate-dependent subjects in buprenorphine maintenance treatment: Correlates of use, abuse and dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend 2009, 99(1-3):338-344.

Chutuape MA, Brooner RK, Stitzer M. Sedative use disorders in opiate-dependent patients: association with psychiatric and other substance use disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis 1997;185:289–97.

Kraus L, Augustin R, Kunz-Ebrecht S, Orth B. Drug use patterns and drug-related disorders of cocaine users in a sample of the general population in Germany. Eur Addict Res 2007;13:116–25.

C Heather Ashton DM. "Chapter III: Benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms, acute & protracted". Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University. "Benzodiazepines: how they work and how to withdraw". 2013.

Voshaar, R. C. O.; Couvée, JE; Van Balkom, AJ; Mulder, PG; Zitman, FG. "Strategies for discontinuing long-term benzodiazepine use: Meta-analysis". The British Journal of Psychiatry 2006;189 (3): 213–20.

Authier, Nicolas; Boucher, Alexandra; Lamaison, Dominique; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Descotes, Jacques; Eschalier, Alain. "Second Meeting of the French CEIP (Centres d'Évaluation et d'Information sur la Pharmacodépendance). Part II: Benzodiazepine Withdrawal". Thérapie, 2009; 64 (6):365–70.

H. Petursson, “The benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome,” Addiction, vol. 89, no. 11, pp. 1455–1459, 1994.

Colvin, Rod. Overcoming Prescription Drug Addiction: A Guide to Coping and Understanding (3 ed.). United States of America: Addicus Books.2008. pp. 74–76.

Grad R, Tamblyn R, Holbrook AM, Hurley J, Feightner J, Gayton D. Risk of a new benzodiazepine prescription in relation to recent hospitalization. J Am Geriatr Soc.1999; 47(2): 184–188.

Lader M, Tylee A, Donoghue J. "Withdrawing benzodiazepines in primary care".CNS Drugs,2009;23 (1):19–34.

Vogel M, Knöpfli B, Schmid O, Prica M, Strasser J, Prieto L, Wiesbeck GA, Dürsteler-Macfarland KM. Treatment or "high": benzodiazepine use in patients on injectable heroin or oral opioids. Addictive behaviors pg 2477-84, 38:10; 2013

Ingunn Olea Lund, Svetlana Skurtveit, Anders Engeland, Kari Furu, Edle Ravndal, Marte Handal. Prescription drug use among pregnant women in opioid Maintenance Treatment. Addiction.2012.

Iqbal MM , Sobhan T, Ryals T.Effects of commonly used benzodiazepines on the fetus, the neonate, and the nursing infant. Psychiatr Serv.2002; 53(1):39-49.

Seligman N. S., Salva N., Hayes E. J., Dysart K. C., Pequignot E. C., Baxter J. K. Predicting length of treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome in methadone-exposed neonates. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008; 199: 396.

Pritham U. A., Paul J. A., Hayes M. J. Opioid dependency in pregnancy and length of stay for neonatal abstinence syndrome. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2012; 41: 180–90.

Briggs G. G., Freeman R. K., Yaffe S. J. Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation Shaw R., editor. 8 edn. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1251.2008; p. 419.

Daae L., Holene. et al.Felleskatalogen,Norway, Oslo:Fagbokforlaget; 2011.

Mohammad Masud Iqbal, Tanveer Sobhan, Thad Ryals. Effects of Commonly Used Benzodiazepines on the Fetus, the Neonate, and the Nursing Infant .Psychiatric Services 2002.

William O. Cooper, Gerald B. Hickson, Wayne A. Ray. Prescriptions for contraindicated category X drugs in pregnancy among women enrolled in Tenn Care Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology,18,2004;p.106–111.

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/260725-overview#aw2aab6c10(accessed 3 July 2014).

T.Petrushevska. Heroin Maintenance Treatment - Are the Further Investigation Needed? Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2012 Dec 15; 5(4):453-461. http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/MJMS.1857-5773.2012.0238

Galea S.The Social epidemiology of substance use. Social Epidemiology Am J Epidemiology 2004; 160 (1): 1-2.

Т.Петрушевска и соработниците. Карактеристики на злоупотребата на дрогата во Република Македонија. Архиви на јавно здравје,Вол.4, Број 2, 2012.

Silvana Onceva, Donco Donev. ESPAD Report 2008: Republic of Macedonia. NGO Contact: Medical Faculty, Institute for Social Medicine, 2009,ISBN 978-9989-2981-0-3

Hibell B., Andersson, B., Bjarnasson, T. et al., The ESPAD report: alcohol and other drug use among students in 35 European countries, the Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN) and Council of Europe Pompidou Group, 2008.

Lenche Mirchevska, Snezhana Mojsoska, Vlatko Tanevski, Ognen Jakasanovski. A Prospective Study to use and Misuse of Benzodiazepines to Different Examined Groups by Education in R. Macedonia. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) Volume 14, No 1, 2014;pp 67-74.

Tatjana Petrushevska, Vesna Velik Stefanovska.Patients on Opioid Substitution Treatment in the Republic of Macedonia: What Do Treatment Demand Data Tell Us? Maced J Med Sci electronic publication ahead of print, published on May 28, 2014 as http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/MJMS.1857-5773.2014.0404 http://www.mjms.mk/

Годишен статистички извештај за супстанциите наведени во Конвенцијата за психотропни супстанции од 1971, ФОРМ П за 2013, 2012,2011, 2010,2009.

Законот за лековите и медицинските помагала („Службен весник на Република Македонија", бр. 106/07, 88/10, 36/11 и 53/11)

Правилник за начинот на пропишување и издавање на лекови на рецепт (Законот за лековите и медицинските помагала ("Службен весник на РМ" бр. 106/07),2007.

Потрошувачка на лекови на рецепт од Листата на лекови за примарна здравствена заштита Јануари – Јуни 2012 година, Скопје, септември 2012 година

Годишен Извештај 2011 за работењето на Фондот за здравствено осигурување на Македонија http://www.fzo.org.mk/(accessed 3 July2014).

Елена Тулевска, Владимир Димковски. Годишен Извештај за 2013 година: Фонд за здравствено осигурување на Македонија, 2014; ISBN 978-608-4695-05-9 .

Bleich A, Gelkopf M, Weizman T, Adelson M. Benzodiazepine abuse in a methadone maintenance treatment clinic in Israel: characteristics and a pharmacotherapeutic approach. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2002;39(2):104-12.

Preston KL, Griffiths RR, Stitzer ML, Bigelow GE, Liebson IA.Diazepam and methadone interactions in methadone maintenance. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1984 Oct;36(4):534-41.

Lintzeris N, Mitchell TB, Bond AJ, Nestor L, Strang J. Pharmacodynamics of diazepam co-administered with methadone or buprenorphine under high dose conditions in opioid dependent patients. Drug Alcohol Depend.2007;91(2-3):187-94.

Downey KK, Helmus TC, Schuster CR. Treatment of heroin-dependent polydrug abusers with contingency management and buprenorphine maintenance. Psychopharmacolоgy;2000;8:176–84.

Clark RE, Xie H, Brunette MFBenzodiazepine prescription practices and substance abuse in persons with severe mental illness. J Clin Psychiatry.2004;65(2):151-5.

Brunette MF, Noordsy DL, Xie H, Drake RE. Benzodiazepine use and abuse among patients with severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Psychiatr Serv.2003.

Bramness, J.G., Kornør, H.Benzodiazepine prescription for patients in opioid maintenance treatment in Norway. Drug Alcohol Depend. 90,2007;p. 203-209.

Laqueille X , Launay C, Dervaux A, Kanit M. Abuse of alcohol and benzodiazepine during substitution therapy in heroin addicts: a review of the literature, Encephale 2009 .

Busto U, Sellers EM, Naranjo CA, Cappell HD, Sanchez Craig M, Simpkins J: Patterns of benzodiazepine abuse and dependence. Br J Addict 1986, 81(1):87-94.

Ball JC, Ross A. The Effectiveness of Methadone Maintenance Treatment. Patients, Programs, Services and Outcome. New York: Springer Verlag; 1991.

Lankenau SE, Sanders B, Bloom JJ, Hathazi DS, Alarcon E, Tortu S, Clatts M:Prevalence and patterns of prescription drug misuse among young ketamine injectors. J Drug Iss 2007, 37(3):717.

Gelkopf M, Bleich A, Hayward R, Bodner G, Adelson M: Characteristics of benzodiazepine abuse in methadone maintenance treatment patients: a 1 year prospective study in an Israeli clinic. Drug Alcohol Depend, 1999, 55 (1-2):63-68.

Browne R, Sloan D, Fahy S, Keating S, Moran C, O’Connor J: Detection of benzodiazepine abuse in opiate addicts. Ir Med J 1998, 91(1):18-19.

Peles E, Schreiber S, Adelson M: Variables associated with perceived sleep disorders in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients. Drug Alcohol Depend 2006, 82(2):103-110.

Thirion X, Micallef J, Barrau K, Djezzar S, Sanmarco JL, Lagier G. Observation of psychoactive substance consumption: methods and results of the French OPPIDUM Programme. Eur Addict Res 2001;7: 32–6.

Weizman T, Gelkopf M, Melamed Y, Adelson M, Bleich A. Treatment of benzodiazepine dependence in methadone maintenance treatment patients: a comparison of two therapeutic modalities and the role of psychiatric comorbidity. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2003;37:458–63.

McLellan AT, Luborsky L, Woody GE, O’Brien CP. An improved diagnostic evaluation instrument for substance abuse patients. The Addiction Severity Index. J Nerv Ment Dis 1980;168:26–33.

Iguchi MY, Handelsman L, Bickel WK, Griffiths RR: Benzodiazepine and sedative use/abuse by methadone maintenance clients. Drug Alcohol Depend 1993, 32(3):257-266.

Phillip Oliver, Robert Forrest and Jenny Keen. Benzodiazepines and cocaine as risk factors in fatal opioid overdoses, National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse, England April 2007.

Stitzer, M. L. Griffiths, R. R., McLellan, A. T., Grabowski, J., Hawthorne, J. W. Diazepam use among methadone maintenance patients: patterns and dosages. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1981; 8: 189-199.

Klee, H., Faugier, J., Haues, C., Bouleon, T., Morris, J. Aids-related risk behaviour, polydrug use and temazepam. British Journal of Addiction 1990; 85: 1125-1132.

Metzger, D., Woody, G., DePhilipis, D., McLellan, A. T., O’Brien, C. P., Platt, J. J. Risk factors for needle sharing among methadone treated patients. American Journal of Psychiatry 1991; 48: 636-640

Darke S. Benzo diazepine use among injecting drug users: problems and implications. Addiction 1994; 89: 379-382.

Van Den Hoek, J.A.R., Van Haarstrecht, H.J.A., Goudsmit, J., De Wolf, F., Coutinho, R. A. Prevalence, incidence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus infection among drug users in Amsterdam. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1990; 162: 823-836.

Fatséas M, Lavie E, Denis C, Franques-Rénéric P, Tignol J, Auriacombe M. Benzodiazepine withdrawal in subjects on opiate substitution treatment Presse Med. 2006.

Vogel M, Dürsteler-Macfarland KM, Walter M, Strasser J, Fehr S, Prieto L, Wiesbeck GA. Prolonged use of benzodiazepines is associated with childhood trauma in opioid-maintained patients. Drug and alcohol dependence 119:1-2.2011 Dec 1. pg 93-8.

Darke S, Ross J, Teesson M, Lynskey M. Health service utilization and benzodiazepine use among heroin users: findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS).Addiction.2003; 98(8):1129-35.

Ross J, Darke S.The nature of benzodiazepine dependence among heroin users in Sydney, Australia. Addiction.2000; 95(12):1785-93.

Fernández Sobrino AM, Fernández Rodríguez V, López Castro J. Benzodiazepine use in a sample of patients on a treatment program with opiate derivatives.Adicciones 2009;21(2):143-6.

Griffiths RR, Johnson MW.Relative abuse liability of hypnotic drugs: a conceptual framework and algorithm for differentiating among compounds.J Clin Psychiatry. 66 Suppl 2005; 9:31-41.

Heather G Fulton, Sean P Barrett, Cindy MacIsaac, and Sherry H Stewart The relationship between self-reported substance use and psychiatric symptoms in low-threshold methadone maintenance treatment clients Harm Reduct J. 2011.

Kevin W Chen, Christine C Berger, Darlene P Forde, Christopher D’Adamo, Eric Weintraub and Devang Gandhi.Benzodiazepine Use and Misuse Among Patients in a Methadone Program. Chen K, Berger C, Forde D, D’Adamo C, Weintraub E, Gandhi D. Benzodiazepine use and misuse among patients in a methadone program. BMC Psychiatry 2011; 11: 90.

Nielsen S, Dietze P, Lee N, et al. Concurrent buprenorphine and benzodiazepines use and self-reported opioid toxicity in opioid substitution treatment. Addiction. 2007;102(4):616–622.

Jones JD, Mogali S, Comer SD. Polydrug abuse: a review of opioid and benzodiazepine combination use. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012.

Udi E. Ghitza, David H. Epstein, and Kenzie L. Preston. Self-report of illicit benzodiazepine use on the Addiction Severity Index predicts treatment outcome,Drug Alcohol Depend. 1;2008; 97(1-2): 150–157.

Heather G Fulton, Sean P Barrett, Cindy MacIsaac, and Sherry H Stewart The relationship between self-reported substance use and psychiatric symptoms in low-threshold methadone maintenance treatment clients Harm Reduct J. 2011.

Ciraulo DA, Ciraulo JA, Sands BF, Knapp CM, Sarid-Segal O. In: Clinical Manual of Addiction Psychopharmacology. Kranzler HR, Ciraulo DA, editor. Arlington, Vermont: American Psychiatric Publishing. Sedative-hypnotics 2005; pp.111–162.

Westra HA, Stewart SH. As-needed use of benzodiazepines in managing clinical anxiety: Incidence and implications. Curr Pharm Des. 2002;8:59–74

Rapeli P, Fabritius C, Kalska H, Alho H. Memory function in opioid-dependent patients treated with methadone or buprenorphine along with benzodiazepine: longitudinal change in comparison to healthy individuals. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2009.

Laqueille X, Launay C, Dervaux A, Kanit M. Abuse of alcohol and benzodiazepine during substitution therapy in heroin addicts: a review of the literature, Encephale 2009.

Elinore F. Mc Cance-Katz, Drug Interactions of Clinical Importance among the Opioids, Methadone and Buprenorphine, and other Frequently Prescribed Medications: A Review, Am J Addict. 2010

Obadia Y, Perrin V, Feroni I, Vlahov D, Moatti JP. Injecting misuse of buprenorphine among French drug users. Addiction 2001 Feb; 96(2):267-72.

Reynaud M, Petit G, Potard D, Courty P. Six deaths linked to concomitant use of buprenorphine and benzodiazepines. Addiction. 1998; 93:1385–1392.

Caplehorn JR, Drummer OH. Fatal methadone toxicity: signs and circumstances, and the role of benzodiazepines. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2002.

Darke S, Swift W, Hall W, Ross M. Drug use, HIV risk-taking and psychosocial correlates of benzodiazepine use among methadone maintenance clients. Drug Alcohol Depend, 1993; 34: 67-70.

Maremmani I, Shinderman M. Alcohol, benzodiazepines and other drugs use in heroin addicts treated with methadone: polyabuse or undermedication. Heroin Add Rel Clin Probl 1999; 1: 7-13.

Unger A., Metz V., Fischer G. Opioid dependent and pregnant:what are the best options for mothers and neonates?Obstet Gynecol Int; Obstetrics and Gynecology International,Volume 2012, Article ID 195954, 2012.p.6.

Tatjana Petrushevska, Zlatko Jakovski, Verica Poposka, Vesna Velik Stefanovska. Drug related deaths caused by methadone and benzodiazepines in 2002-2013. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, PubDate: 2015-01-08T04:34:27Z, ISSN 1878-7487

Pereska JZ, Petkovska LL, Bozinovska C, Simonovska N, Cibisev A, Babulovska A. Epidemiological Characteristics of Hospitally Treated Poisonings in 1988 and 2008 Year at the University Clinic of Toxicology, Skopje. Clinical Toxicology vol. 48 no. 3, 2010.

Ball JC, Ross A. The Effectiveness of Methadone Maintenance Treatment. Patients, Programs, Services and Outcome. New York: Springer Verlag; 1991.

Grönbladh L, Ohlund LS, Gunne LM. Mortality in heroin addiction: impact of methadone treatment. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1990;82:223–7.

Cacciola JS, Altermann AI, Rutherford MJ, McKay JR, McLellan AT. The early course of change in methadone maintenance. Addiction 1998;93:41–9.

Magura S, Nwakeze PC, Demsky SJ. Pre- and in-treatment predictors of retention in methadone treatment using survival analysis. Addiction 1998;93:51–60.

Brewer DD, Catalano RF, Haggerty K, Gainey RR, Fleming CB. A meta-analysis of predictors of continued drug use during and after treatment for opiate addiction. Addiction 1998;93:73–92.

Thirion X, Micallef J, Barrau K, Djezzar S, Sanmarco JL, Lagier G. Observation of psychoactive substance consumption: methods and results of the French OPPIDUM Programme. Eur Addict Res 2001;7:32–6.

Drake S, Swift W, Hall W, Ross M. Drug use, HIV risktaking and psychosocial correlates of benzodiazepine use among methadone maintenance clients. Drug Alcohol Depend 1993;34:67–70.

Seivewright N, Donmall M, Daly C. Benzodiazepine in the illicit drug scene: the UK picture and some treatment dilemmas. Int J Drug Policy 1993;4:42–8.

Spielberger CD: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults (Form Y) Redwood City, CA: Mind Garden Inc; 1983.

Deacon BJ, Abramowitz JS, Woods CM, Tolin DF: The Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised: psychometric properties and factor structure in two nonclinical samples. Behav Res Ther 2003, 41(12):1427-1449.

Radloff LS: The CES-D Scale: A Self Report Depression Scale for Research in the General. Applied psychological measurement 1977, 1(3):385-401.

Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R: A global measure of perceived stress. J Health Soc Behav 1983, 24(4):385-396.

Janine V. Olthuis ,Margo C. Watt , Sherry H. Stewart. Journal of Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-3) subscales predict unique variance in anxiety and depressive symptoms Volume 28, Issue 2, March 2014, pages 115–124.

Taylor, S. et al. Robust dimensions of anxiety sensitivity: Development and initial validation of the Anxiety Sensitivity 64 Index-3 (ASI-3). Psychological Assessment, 19, 176-188.2007.

Roth, D.L., Ackerman, M. Okonkwo, O. & Burgio, L. The four-factor model of depressive symptoms in dementia caregivers: A structural equation model of ethnic differences. Psychology and Aging, 23,2008;p. 567–576.

Sheldon Cohen. Perceived Stress Scale: Measuring the self-perception of stress 2005;85:17–32.

Benyamina.А. The current status of opioid maintenance treatment in France: a survey of physicians, patients, and out-of-treatment opioid users. International Journal of General Medicine 2014; 7: 449–457.

Goulão J, Heino Stöver.The profile of patients, out-of-treatment users and treating physicians involved in opioid maintenance treatment in Europe. Heroin Addict Relat Clin Probl 2012; 14(4): 7-22

Wittchen HU et al. Feasibility and outcome of substitution treatment of heroin-dependent patients in specialized substitution centers and primary care facilities in Germany: a naturalistic study in 2694 patients. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008; 95:245-257.

Wittchen HU et al. Ergebnisse und Schlussfolgerungen der PREMOS-Studie (Predictors, Moderators and Outcome of Substitution Treatment). Suchtmedizin in Forschung und Praxis. 2011; 13:199-299.

Roncero C, on behalf of the PROTEUS study investigators. Therapeutic management and comorbidities in opiate-dependent patients undergoing a replacement therapy programme in Spain: the PROTEUS study. Heroin Addict Relat Clin Probl. Vol. 13,N. 3, ISSN 1592-1638, September 2011; 13: 5-16.

Jones A, et al. The Drug Treatment Outcomes Research Study (DTORS): baseline report. Research Report 3. 2007. www.dtors.org.uk(accessed 5 September2014).

Marta Torrens, Francina Fonseca, Claudio Castillo & Antonia Domingo-Salvany.Methadone maintenance treatment in Spain: the success of a harm reduction,Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2013;91:136-141. doi: 10.2471/BLT.12.111054.

József Rácz, Ferenc Márványkövi, Katalin Melles, Zsolt Petke, Viktória Vadász, István Vingender.Methadon maintenance treatment programs in Hungary: Treatment, Harm Reduction and Social Control. Borgis - New Medicine 4,2012, p. 131-141.

Okruhlica Ĺ, Slezáková S. Weight changes of patients in methadone maintenance treatment during four years period. Cas Lek Cesk. 2012; 151(8):389-91.

Einat Peles, Shaul Schreiber, Miriam Adelson.Factors predicting retention in treatment: 10-year experience of a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinic in Israel. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2005.

Li Li, Chunqing Lin, Dai Wan, Linglin Zhang, and Wenhong Lai. Concurrent heroin use among methadone maintenance clients in China. Addict Behav. Mar 2012; 37(3): 264–268.

EMCDDA Perspectives on drugs, Trends in heroin use, in Europe includes the 27 EU Member States, Croatia, Turkey and Norway, 2013. Available from:http://www.emcdda.europa.eu (accessed 15 September 2014).

Fischer G., Stöver H. Assessing the current state of opioid-dependence treatment across Europe:methodology of the European Quality Audit of Opioid Treatment (EQUATOR) project.Heroin Addict Relat Clin Probl.2012;14: 5-7.

Jones A, Weston S, Moody A, Millar T, Dollin L, Anderson T, Donmall M. The Drug Treatment Outcomes Research Study (DTORS): Research Report 3. 2007. www.dtors.org.uk (accessed 3 July2014).

Wittchen HU, Bühringer G, Rehm J. Ergebnisse und Schlussfolgerungen der Premos-Studie (Predictors, Moderators and Outcome of Substitution Treatment). Suchtmedizin in Forschung und Praxis. 2011; 13: 199-299.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Data: statistical bulletin 2011. Lisbon: EMCDDA; 2011. http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/stats11 (accessed 15 September2014).

Annette Dale-Perera et al. Quality of Care Provided to Patients Receiving Opioid Maintenance Treatment in Europe:Results from the EQUATOR analysis. Heroin Addict Relat Clin Probl 2012; 14(4): 23-38

Michael Donmall, Andrew Jones, Linda Davies & Matthew Barnard.Drug Treatment Outcomes, Research Study (DTORS), Research Report 23. Home Office UK. ISSN 1756-3666 ISBN 978 1 84987 122 8. December 2009.

EMCDDA. Statistical bulletin 2012. Last accessed 10 August 2014 at www.emcdda.europa.eu.

Dale-Perera A, Goulao J, Stöver H. Quality of care provided to patients receiving Opioid Maintenance Treatment in Europe: Results from the EQUATOR analysis. Heroin Addict Relat Clin Probl. 2012;14(4): 23–38.

H. Stöver: Assessing the current state of public-health-related outcomes in opioid dependence across Europe: data from the EQUATOR analysis. Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems 14 (4): 51-64, 2012

Nolan LJ, Scagnelli LM. Preference for sweet foods and higher body mass index in patients being treated in long-term methadone maintenance. Subst Use Misuse 2007;42(10):1555-66.

Kolarzyk E, Jenner B, Szpanowska-Wohn A, Pach D, Szurkowska M. The changes in taste preferences during 4 years period of methadone maintenance treatment. Przegl Lek. 2005;62(6):378-81.

Daniel D. Langleben, Elliott L. Busch, Charles P. O’Brien and Igor Elman. Depot-naltrexone decreases rewarding properties of sugar in patients with opioid dependence. Psychopharmacology 2012; 220(3): 559–564.

Hedonic and motivational roles of opioids in food reward: implications for overeating disorders. Peciña S, Smith KS Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010 Nov; 97(1):34-46.

Carlos Roncero, Gideoni Fuste, Carmen Barral, Laia Rodríguez-Cintas, Nieves Martínez-Luna, Francisco José Eiroa-Orosa, Miguel Casas Therapeutic management and comorbidities in opiate-dependent patients undergoing a replacement therapy programme in Spain: the PROTEUS study . Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems Vol. 13,N.3, ISSN 1592-1638, September 2011.

Trautmann F, Rode N, van Gageldonk A et al.: Evaluation of substitution maintenance treatment in Slovenia – assessing quality and efficiency. Trimbos Institute – Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction Faculty of Social Work, Ljubljana: University of Ljubljana Utrecht 2007.

Rácz J, Márványkövi F, Melles K: Közösségi-alapú utcai megkereső modell-program pilot-study vizsgálata budapesti intravénás kábítószer-fogyasztók körében (Community-based street outreach pilot program among injecting drug users in Budapest). Addiktológia 2009; 8(3), 219-253.

Millson P, Challacombe L, Villeneuve PJ: HIV risk after 6 months in a low-threshold methadone treatment program. AIDS Education and Prevention 2007; 19(2): 124-136.

Ministry of Youth and Sports Parliamentary Resolution on National Drug Strategy, 2000. Budapest: Ministry of Youth and Sport 2001.

Strang J, Manning V, Mayet S et al.: Does prescribing for opiate addiction change after national guidelines? Methadone and buprenorphine prescribing to opiate addicts by general practitioners and hospital doctors in England, 1995-2005. Addiction 2010; 102(5): 761-770.

US Department of Veterans Affairs (2001) Management of substance use disorders in primary and specialty care, v 1.0. Available: http://www.oqp.med.va.gov/cpg/SUD/SUD_Base.htm. (Accessed August 2014)

Maremmani I, Pacini M, Lubrano S, Lovrecic M. When “enough” is still not “enough”: Effectiveness of high-dose methadone in the treatment of heroin addiction. Heroin Add & Rel Clin Probl 2003; 5:17–32.

D'Aunno T, Pollack HA. Changes in methadone treatment practices: Results from a national panel study, 1988–2000. JAMA 2002 Aug 21;288(7):850-6.

Ingo Ilja Michels, Heino Stöver and Ralf Gerlach. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany.Harm Reduction Journal 2007, 4:5 doi:10.1186/1477-7517-4-5

Seth Himelhoch et al.Post traumatic stress disorder and 1 year outcome in methadone maintenance treatment. Am J Addict. 2012; 21(6): 524–530.

Trafton JA, Minkel J, Humphreys K Determining Effective Methadone Doses for Individual Opioid-Dependent Patients. PLoS Med 3(3): e 80. 2006. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030080.

Academy for Educational Development (AED). Methadone Maintenance Treatment, an assessment of state and local technical assistance issues and priorities. Washington (DC): AED; Prepared for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Feb 2002.

Darke S, Ross J. Polydrug dependence and psychiatric comorbidity among heroin injectors. Drug Alcohol Depend 1997; 48:135–41.

Kraus L, Augustin R, Kunz-Ebrecht S, Orth B. Drug use patterns and drug-related disorders of cocaine users in a sample of the general population in Germany. Eur Addict.Res 2007;13:116–25.

Michael Donmall, Andrew Jones, Samantha Weston, Linda Davies, Karen P. Hayhurst and Tim Millar The Drug Treatment Outcomes Research Study (DTORS): Research Design and Baseline Data. The Open Addiction Journal,5, 2012, p. 1-11

EMCDDA. Polydrug use: patterns and responses. Lisbon:European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction 2009.

Liljana Ignjatova, Marija Raleva, Viktorija Vujovik, Daiela Caparovska, Aneta Spasovska Trajanovska,Nada Aleksovska. Drug use among minors and challenges for their treatment SEEA Addictions,South Eastern European and Adriatic Addiction Treatment Network,2012

http://sensecentre.org/sr/files/Seea-addicion-vol-xii-supl-1-2012.pdf (Accessed Octomber 2014)

Н.Беќаровски, Б.Павловски, С.Радуловиќ Беќаровска, Н.Симоновска, Македонски хероински зависник, Здружение на токсиколози, 2007 достапно на http://www.toksikologija.com.mk/(Accessed Octomber 2014)

Darke S, Ross J, Mills K, Teesson M, Williamson A, Havard A. Benzodiazepine use among heroin users: Baseline use, current use and clinical outcome. Drug Alcohol Rev, 2009.

Bundeszentrale für Gesundheitliche Aufklärung.Die drogenaffinität Jugendlicher in der Bundesrepublik Deutchand. Der konsum von alcohol, tabak und illegalen drogen: aktuelle verbreitung und trends. Köln: Bundeszentrale für Gesundheitliche aufklärung.2012.

Srivastava A, Kahan M, Ross S. The effect of methadone maintenance treatment on alcohol consumption: a systematic review. Journal of Substance Abuse and Treatment 2008;34(2):215-23.

Maremmani I, Pani PP, Mellini A, Pacini M, Marini G, Lovrecic M, et al. Alcohol and cocaine use and abuse among opioid addicts engaged in a methadone maintenance treatment program. Journal of Addictive Diseases 2007;26(1):61-70.

McCusker M.Influence of hepatitis C status on alcohol consumption in opiate users in treatment. Addiction 2001;96(7):1007-14.

Ostapowicz G, Watson KJ, Locarnini SA, Desmond PV: Role of alcohol in the progression of liver disease caused by hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology 1998, 27(6):1730-1735

Teplin D, Raz B, Daiter J, Varenbut M, Plater-Zyberk C. Screening for alcohol use patterns among methadone maintenance patients. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 2007; 33(1):179-83.

Bickel WK, Amass L: The relationship of mean daily blood alcohol levels to admission MAST, clinic absenteeism and depression in alcoholic methadone patients. Drug Alcohol Depend 1993, 32(2):113-118

Catherine Anne Field, Jan Klimas, Joseph Barry, Gerard Bury, Eamon Keenan, Bobby P Smyth and Walter Cullen Problem alcohol use among problem drug users in primary care: a qualitative study of what patients think about screening and treatment. BMC Family Practice 2013, 14:98 doi:10.1186/1471-2296-14-98

Gossop M, Marsden J, Stewart D, Rolfe A. Patterns of drinking and drinking outcomes among drug misusers: 1-year followup results. Journal of S ubstance A buse T reatment 2000;19(1):45-50.

Huang CL, C L: Factors associated with mortality among heroin users after seeking treatment with methadone: a population-based cohort study in Taiwan.J Subst Abuse Treat 2013, 44(3):295-300.

Fairbairn N, Hayashi K, Kaplan K, Suwannawong P, Qi J.: Factors associated with methadone treatment among injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand. J Subst Abuse Treat 2012, 43(1):108-113.

Stenbacka M, Beck O, Leifman A, Romelsjo¨ A, Helander A: Problem drinking in relation to treatment outcome among opiate addicts in methadone maintenance treatment.Drug Alcohol Rev 2007, 26:55-63.

Ethan Moitra, Bradley J Anderson, Michael D Stein. Perceived stress and substance use in methadone-maintained smokers. Drug and alcohol dependence, 2013.

Elkader AK, Brands B, Selby P, Sproule BA. Methadone-nicotine interactions in methadone maintenance treatment patients. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009 Jun; 29(3):231-8. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0b013e3181a39113.

Backmund M, Meyer K, Henkel C, Soyka M, Reimer J, Schütz CG. Co-consumption of benzodiazepines in heroin users, methadone-substituted and codeine-substituted patients. J Addict Dis. 2005;24(4):17-29.

Ралева М. Истражување на несаканите искуства од детсвото, меѓу младите лица во Република Македонија, Светска здравствена организација, 2013

Douglas, K.R., Chan, G., Gelernter, J., Arias, A.J., Anton, R.F., Weiss, R.D., Brady, K., Poling, J., Farrer, L., Kranzler, H.R.Adverse childhood events as risk factors for substance dependence: partial mediation by mood and anxiety disorders. Addict. Behav. 35, 2010, p.7–13.

Dube, S.R., Anda, R.F., Felitti, V.J., Edwards, V.J., Croft, J.B.Adverse childhood experiences and personal alcohol abuse as an adult. Addict. Behav. 27,2002, p.713–725.

Anda, R.F., Brown, D.W., Felitti, V.J., Bremner, J.D., Dube, S.R., Giles, W.H.Adverse childhood experiences and prescribed psychotropic medications in adults. Am. J. Prev. Med. 32,2007, p. 389–394.

Anda, R.F., Brown, D.W., Felitti, V.J., Dube, S.R., Giles, W.H.Adverse childhood experiences and prescription drug use in a cohort study of adult HMO patients. BMC Public Health 8, 2008,p.198.

Annabel Boys, John Marsden and John Strang.Understanding reasons for drug use amongst young people: a functional perspective. Health Educ. Res. 2001, 16 (4): 457-469. doi: 10.1093/her/16.4.457

Boys, A., Marsden, J., Griffiths, P. and Strang, J.Drug use functions predict cocaine-related problems. Drug and Alcohol Review19,200; p.181–190.

Hamish Warburton, Paul J. Turnbull and Mike Hough. Occasional and controlled heroin use.Not a problem? King’s College London,2005. ISBN 1 85935 424 6 British Library. (www.jrf.org.uk). (Accessed Octomber 2014)

von Sydow K, Lieb R, Pfister H, Höfler M, Wittchen HU. What predicts incident use of cannabis and progression to abuse and dependence? A 4-year prospective examination of risk factors in a community sample of adolescents and young adults. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2002 Sep 1; 68(1):49-64.

Cicero TJ, Ellis MS, Surratt HL, Kurtz SP. The changing face of heroin use in the United States: a retrospective analysis of the past 50 years. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014 Jul 1;71(7):821-6. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.366.

Wibberley, C. and Price, J. (2000) Patterns of psycho-stimulant drug use amongst `social/operational users': implications for services. Addiction Research, 8, 2000;p. 95–111.

Leri F , Bruneau J, Stewart J. Understanding polydrug use: review of heroin and cocaine co-use. Addiction. 2003 Jan;98(1):7-22.

Heino Johann Stöver and Dirk Schäffer.SMOKE IT! Promoting a change of opiate consumption pattern - from injecting to inhaling.Harm Reduction Journal 11:18,2014. doi:10.1186/1477-7517-11-18

Linda Montanari, Bruno Guarita, André Noor, Lucas Wiessing, Filomena Gomes, Dagmar Hedrich, Alessandro Pirona, Roland Simon, Julian Vicente. Guidelines for reporting data on people entering drug treatmentin European countries. ISBN 978-92-9168-507-3.2012

V. Reissner, A. Kokkevi, F. Schifano, R. Room, et al. Differences in drug consumption, comorbidity and health service use of opioid addicts across six European urban regions (TREAT-project).European Psychiatry Volume 27, Issue 6, August 2012; p. 455-462,

Lankenau SE, Sanders B, Jackson-Bloom J, et al. Prevalence and patterns of prescription drug misuse among young ketamine injectors. J Drug Issues 2007;37(3):717–736.

Evans JL, Hahn JA, Lum PJ, Stein ES, Page K. Predictors of injection drug use cessation and relapse in a prospective cohort of young injection drug users in San Francisco, CA (UFO Study) Drug Alcohol Depend.2009;101(3):152–157.

Hagan H, Campbell JV, Thiede H, et al. Injecting alone among young adult IDUs in five US cities: evidence of low rates of injection risk behavior. Drug Alcohol Depend.;91(Suppl 1):S48–S55.2007

Johnston, LD, O’Malley, PM, Bachman, JG, Schulenberg, JE. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2009. NIH Publication No. 10-7583. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse; 2010.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Volume I. Summary of National Findings. NSDUH Series H-38A: DHHS Publication No. SMA 10-4856. Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies; 2010.

Rooney S, Kelly G, Bamford L, Sloan D, O'Connor JJ. Co-abuse of opiates and benzodiazepines. Ir J Med Sci. 1999;168 (1):36-41.

Suzanne Nielsen, Raimondo Bruno, Louisa Degenhardt, Mark A Stoove, Jane A Fischer. The sources of pharmaceuticals for problematic users of benzodiazepines and prescription opioids. MJA 2013; 199: 696–699, doi: 10.5694/mja13.11331.2013

Szesny, Derek, "Relationship Between Nonmedical Benzodiazepine Use and Psychiatric Disorders Among Rural Appalachian Drug Abusers". Theses and Dissertations--Public Health, College of Public Health at UKnowledge (M.P.H. & Dr.P.H.). Paper 3.2013

http://uknowledge.uky.edu/cph_etds/3 (Accessed Octomber 2014)

Heino Johann Stöver and Dirk Schäffer.SMOKE IT! Promoting a change of opiate consumption pattern - from injecting to inhaling.Harm Reduction Journal 2014, 11:18 doi:10.1186/1477-7517-11-18

Rook EJ, van Ree JM, van den Brink W, Hillebrand MJ, Huitema AD, Hendriks VM, Beijnen JH. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of high doses of pharmaceutically prepared heroin, by intravenous or by inhalation route in opioid-dependent patients. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006 Jan;98(1):86-96.

Brienza RS, Stein MD, Chen M, Gogineni A, Sobota M, Maksad J, Hu P, Clarke J. Depression among needle exchange program and methadone maintenance clients. J Subst Abuse Treat. 200;18(4):331-7.

Schreiber S, Peles E, Adelson M. Association between improvement in depression, reduced benzodiazepine (BDZ) abuse, and increased psychotropic medication use in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients. Drug Alcohol Depend.2007; 92:79–85.

Allison J Applebaum,et al. Rates of mood and anxiety disorders and contributors to continued heroin use in methadone maintenance patients: A comparison by HIV status. Neurobehav HIV Med. 2010; 2010(2): 49–57.

Benyamina А. The current status of opioid maintenance treatment in France: a survey of physicians, patients, and out-of-treatment opioid users. International Journal of General Medicine 2014:7

Jermaine D. Jones, Shanthi Mogali and Sandra D. Comer. Polydrug abuse: A review of opioid and benzodiazepine combination use. Drug Alcohol Depend., 2012; 125(1-2): 8–18.

Francesco Leri et al. Understanding polydrug use: review of heroin and cocaine co-use et al. Addiction,98,2003,p.7–22.

Gerasimov, M. R. & Dewey, S. Gamma-vinyl gammaaminobutyric acid attenuates the synergistic elevations of nucleus accumbens dopamine produced by a cocaine/heroin (speedball) challenge. European Journal of Pharmacology, 380,1999;p. 1–4.

Hemby, S. E., Dworkin, S. I. & Smith J. Synergistic elevations in nucleus accumbens extracellular dopamine concentrations during self-administration of cocaine/ heroin combinations (speedball) in rats. Journal of Pharmacology Experimental Therapeutics, 288,1999,p. 274–280.

Francesco Leri et al. Understanding polydrug use: review of heroin and cocaine co-use et al. Addiction,98,2003;p.7–22.

Stephen E. Lankenau, Michelle Teti, Karol Silva, Jennifer Jackson Bloom, Alex Harocopos. Patterns of Prescription Drug Misuse among Young Injection Drug Users. J Urban Health,2012; 89(6):1004–1016.

Daniulaityte RD, Carlson RG, Kenne D. Initiation to pharmaceutical opioids and patterns of misuse: preliminary qualitative findings obtained by the Ohio Substance Abuse Monitoring Network. J Drug Issues;2006;36(4):787–808.

Rigg KK, Ibanez GE. Motivations for non-medical prescription drug use: a mixed methods analysis. J Subst Abuse Treatment; 2010; 39(3):236–247,.

Firestone M, Fischer B. A qualitative exploration of prescription opioid injection among street-based drug users in Toronto: behaviours, preferences and drug availability. Harm Reduction J.5:30.2008.

Roy E, Arruda N, Bourgois P. The growing popularity of prescription opioid injection in downtown Montreal: new challenges for harm reduction. Subst Use Misuse,2011;46(9):1142–1150.

Quintero G. Rx for a party: a qualitative analysis of recreational pharmaceutical use in a collegiate setting. J Am Coll Health;2009;58(1):64–70.

Rigg KK, Ibanez GE. Motivations for non-medical prescription drug use: a mixed methods analysis. J Subst Abuse Treatment; 2010;39(3):236–247.

Agar M, Bourgois P, French J, Murdoch O. Heroin addict habit size in three cities: context and variation. J Drug Issues; 1998:28(4):921–940.

Bardhi F, Sifaneck S, Johnson BD, Dunlap E. Pills, thrills and bellyaches: case studies of prescription pill use and misuse among marijuana/blunt smoking middle class young women. Contemp Drug Probl.2007; 34(1):53–101.

McCabe SE, Boyd CJ, Teter CJ. Subtypes of nonmedical prescription drug misuse. Drug Alcohol Depend.2009;102(1–3):63–70.

Manthey L, Lohbeck M, Giltay EJ, van Veena T, Zitman FG, Penninx BW. Correlates of benzodiazepine dependence in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Addiction. 2012 Dec;107(12):2173-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03975.

Teesson M, Havard A, Fairbairn S, Ross J, Lynskey M, Darke S. Depression among entrants to treatment for heroin dependence in the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS): prevalence, correlates and treatment seeking. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005;78:309–315.

Callaly T, Trauer T, Munro L, Whelan G. Prevalence of psychiatric disorder in a methadone maintenance population. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2001;35:601–605.

Clark HW, Masson CL, Delucchi KL, Hall SM, Sees KL. Violent traumatic events and drug abuse severity. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2001;20:121–127.

Ross J, Teesson M, Darke S, et al. The characteristics of heroin users entering treatment: findings from the Australian treatment outcome study (ATOS). Drug Alcohol Rev. 2005;24:411–418.

Havard A, Teesson M, Darke S, Ross J. Depression among heroin users: 12-Month outcomes from the Australian TreatmentOutcome Study (ATOS). J Subst Abuse Treat. 2006; 30:355–362

Markus Backmund,Kirsten Meyer, Claudia Henkel, Michael Soyka, Jens Reimer, Christian G. Co-Consumption of Benzodiazepines in Heroin Users, Methadone-Substituted and Codeine-Substituted Patients.Journal of Addictive Diseases, Vol. 24(4) 2005.

Marsden J, Gossop M, Stewart D, Rolfe A, Farrell M. Psychiatric symptoms among clients seeking treatment for drug dependence. Intake data from the National Treatment Outcome Research Study. Br J Psychiatry. 2000;176:285–289.

Fahey T, Law F, Cottee H, Astley P: Sudden death in an adult taking methadone: lessons for general practice. Br J Gen Pract 2003, 53:471-472.

Chan GM, Stajic M, Marker EK, Hoffman RS, Nelson LS: Testing positive for methadone and either a tricyclic antidepressant or a benzodiazepine is associated with an accidental overdose death: analysis of medical examiner data. Acad Emerg Med 2006, 13:543-547.

Wolf BC, Lavezzi WA, Sullivan LM, Flannagan LM: Methadone-related deaths in Palm Beach County. J Forensic Sci 2004, 49:375-378.

Wolf BC, Lavezzi WA, Sullivan LM, Middleberg RA, Flannagan LM: Alprazolam-related deaths in Palm Beach County. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2005, 26:24-27.

Woody GE. Research findings on psychotherapy of addictive disorders. Am J Addict. 12 Suppl,2003; 2:S19 –26.

Amato L, Minozzi S, Davoli M, Vecchi S, Ferri M, Mayet S. Psychosocial combined with agonist maintenance treatments versus agonist maintenance treatments alone for treatment of opioid dependence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;4:CD004147.

Cacciola JS, Alterman AI, Rutherford MJ, McKay JR, Mulvaney FD: The relationship of psychiatric comorbidity to treatment outcomes in methadone maintained patients. Drug Alcohol Depend 2001, 61:271-280.

Carpentier PJ, Krabbe PF, van Gogh MT, Knapen LJ, Buitelaar JK, de Jong CA: Psychiatric comorbidity reduces quality of life in chronic methadone maintained patients. Am J Addict 2009, 18:470-480.

Brunette MF , Noordsy DL, Xie H, Drake RE. Benzodiazepine use and abuse among patients with severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Psychiatr Serv. 2003 Oct;54(10):1395-401.

Megan E. Kurth, Katherine M. Sharkey, Richard P. Millman, Richard P. Corso, and Michael D. Stein, Insomnia among methadone-maintained persons: The feasibility of collecting home PSG recordings.J Addict Dis. Jul 2009; 28(3): 219–225.

Chan, G.M., Stajic, M., Marker, E.K., Hoffman, R.S., Nelson, L.S.Testing positive for methadone and either a tricyclic antidepressant or a benzodiazepine is associated with an accidental overdose death: analysis of medical examiner data. Acad. Emerg. Med. 13,2006, p.543–547.

Strang, J., 1984. Intravenous benzodiazepine abuse. Br. Med. J. 289, 1984.

Strang J., Griffiths P., Abbey, J., Gossop, M., Survey of use of injected benzodiazepines among drug users in Britain. Br. Med. J. 308, 1082. 1994.

Panlilio, L.V., Thorndike, E.B., Schindler, C.W. Lorazepam reinstates punishment-suppressed remifentanil self-administration in rats. Psychopharmacology 179, 2005;p.374–382.

Walker, B.M., Ettenberg, A.Benzodiazepine modulation of opiate reward. Exp. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 9, 2001,p.191–197

Walker, B.M., Ettenberg, A.The effects of alprazolam on conditioned place preferences produced by intravenous heroin. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.75,2003,p. 75–80.

Walker, B.M., Ettenberg, A., 2005. Intra-ventral tegmental area heroin-induced place preferences in rats are potentiated by peripherally administered alprazolam. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 82,2005; p.470–477.

Seivewright N. Theory and practice in managing benzodiazepine dependence and misuse. J Subst Misuse 1998; 3:170–177.

Peles E, Schreiber S, Sutzman A, Adelson M. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder among former heroin addicts currently in methadone maintenance treatment. Psychopathology. 2012;45(5):327-33.

Kelly R. Tan, Matthew Brown, Gwenaël Labouèbe, Cédric Yvon, Cyril Creton, Jean-Marc Fritschy, Uwe Rudolph,and Christian Lüscher. Neural bases for addictive properties of benzodiazepines. Nature. 2010; 463(7282): 769–774

Fatse´as M, Lavie E, Denis C, Auriacombe M. Self-perceived motivation for benzodiazepine use and behavior related to enzodiazepine use among opiate-dependent patients. J Subst Abuse Treat 2009; 37: 407-11.

Tunde Apantaku-Olajide, Kevin Ducray, Patricia Byrne and Bobby P. Smyth.Perception of unmet needs and association with benzodiazepine programme misuse among patients on a methadone maintenance treatment. The Psychiatrist Online 2012, 36:169-174.

Heather G Fulton, Sean P Barrett, Cindy MacIsaac and Sherry H Stewart. The relationship between self-reported substance use and psychiatric symptoms in low-threshold methadone maintenance treatment clients. Harm Reduct J. 2011; 8:18.

Cloos, Jean-Marc. "The Treatment of Panic Disorder". Curr Opin Psychiatry 2005; 18(1): 45–50.

Davidson, Jonathan et al. "Treatment of Social Phobia With Clonazepam and Placebo". Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology,1993.

Backmund M, Meyer K, Henkel C, Soyka M, Reimer J, Schütz CG. Co-consumption of benzodiazepines in heroin users, methadone-substituted and codeine-substituted patients. J Addict Dis. 2005; 24(4):17-29.

Y.Hser, J.DuJ. Li,M.Zhao,Y.J. Chang,C.Y.Peng, E.Evans. Hepatitis C among methadone maintenance treatment patients in Shanghai and Kunming, China. Public Health (Oxf). Mar 2012; 34(1): 24–31.

Review National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement: Management of hepatitis C, Hepatology, 36(5 Suppl 1):S3-20;2002.

A. Noble, D. Best, E. Finch, M. Gossop, C. Sidwell, and J. Strang. Original Article:Injecting risk behaviour and year of first injection as predictors of hepatitis B and C status among methadone maintenance patients in south London.Journal of Substance Use Vol. 5, No. 2 ,2000; p. 131-135

Tsang-Yaw Lin,Vincent Chin-Hung Chen,Michael Gossop.Tsaotun Psychiatric Center Department of Health, Nan-Tou 542, Taiwan.2013; 38(4):2089-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.01.010

Xia X, Luo J, Bai J, Yu R.Review Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection among injection drug users in China: systematic review and meta-analysis.2008 Oct; 122(10):990-1003.

World Health Organization (WHO) A Strategy To Halt and Reverse the HIV Epidemic among People Who Inject Drugs in Asia and the Pacific 2010–2015. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press.

http://www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/Publications_Harm_Reduction_Strategy2010-2015.pdf.(Accessed Octomber2014)

Deuffic-Burban S, Wong JB, Poynard T. Boston.Comparing the public health burden of chronic hepatitis C and HIV infection in United States. Presented at the American Association for the Study of the Liver. 2003.

Kim WR. Review: The burden of hepatitis C in the United States. Hepatology 2002 ; 36(5 Suppl 1):S30-4.

Holly Hagan, Jennifer Campbell, Hanne Thiede,Steffanie Strathdee, Lawrence Ouellet, Farzana Kapadia, Sharon Hudson, and Richard S. Garfein.Self-Reported Hepatitis C Virus Antibody Status and Risk Behavior in Young Injectors. Public Health Rep. 2006 Nov-Dec; 121(6): 710–719.

Persistence of heroin use despite methadone treatment: poor coping self-efficacy predicts continued heroin use.Senbanjo R, Wolff K, Marshall EJ, Strang J.Persistence of heroin use despite methadone treatment: poor coping self-efficacy predicts continued heroin use.Drug Alcohol Rev.2009 Nov; 28(6):608-15.

Maruyama A, Macdonald S, Borycki E, Zhao J. Hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes and depression among older methadone maintenance patients in British Columbia. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2013 Jul; 32(4):412-8. doi: 10.1111/dar.12031

Ayman Fareed, Johnita Byrd-Sellers, Sreedevi Vayalapalli, Karen Drexler, Lawrence Phillips. Predictors of diabetes mellitus and abnormal blood glucose in patients receiving opioid maintenance treatment. Am J Addict 2013 Jul-Aug; 22(4):411-6.

Ross J, Darke S. The nature of benzodiazepine dependence among heroin users in Sydney, Australia. Addiction. 2000;95(12):1785–1793.

Constance Weisner, Jennifer Mertens, Sujaya Parthasarathy, Charles Moore, Yun Lu. Integrating Primary Medical Care With Addiction Treatment. JAMA. 2001; 286(14): 1715–1723.

Fareed A, Casarella J, Amar R, Vayalapalli S, Drexler K. Benefits of retention in methadone maintenance and chronic medical conditions as risk factors for premature death among older heroin addicts. J Psychiatr Pract. 2009 May;15(3):227-34

Ricardo A. Cruciani et al. Measurement of QTc in Patients Receiving Chronic Methadone Therapy.Journal of Pain and Symptom Management Volume 29, Issue 4, April 2005, p. 385–391.

Kuryshev YA, Bruening-Wright A, Brown AM, Kirsch GE. Increased cardiac risk in concomitant methadone and diazepam treatment: pharmacodynamic interactions in cardiac ion channels. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2010 Oct; 56(4):420-30

Sanguinetti MC, Tristani-Firouzi M. "hERG potassium channels and cardiac arrhythmia".Nature,2006; 440 (7083): 463–9.

Mojtabai R, Olfson M, Mechanic D. Perceived need and help-seeking in adults with mood, anxiety, or substance use disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002 Jan;59(1):77-84.

Einat Peles, Shaul Schreiber, Miriam Adelson. Documented poor sleep among methadone-maintained patients is associated with chronic pain and benzodiazepine abuse, but not with methadone dose.European Neuropsychopharmacology NEUPSY-10170,2009.p.8.

Stein, M.D., Herman, D.S., Bishop, S., Lassor, J.A., Weinstock, M.,Anthony, J., Anderson, B.J. Sleep disturbances among methadone maintained patients. J. Subst. Abuse Treat. 26,2004; p.175—180.

Schutte-Rodin S, Broch L, Buysse D, Dorsey C, Sateia M. Clinical guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic insomnia in adults. J Clin Sleep Med. 2008;4(5):487-504.

Kahn S: The post-thrombotic syndrome: progress and pitfalls. Br J Haematol 2006, 134:357-365.

Cornford CS, Inns J, Mason JM: Deep vein thrombosis in users of opioid drugs: incidence, prevalence аnd risk factors. Br J Gen Pract 2011, 61(593):781-786.

Mackenzie AR, Laing RB, Douglas JG, Greaves M, Smith CC.High prevalence of iliofemoral venous thrombosis with severe groin infection among injecting drug users in North East Scotland: successful use of low molecular weight heparin with antibiotics.Postgrad Med J. 2000 Sep; 76(899):561-5.

Pieper B, Templin T: Chronic venous insufficiency in persons with a history of injecting drug use. Res Nurs Health 2001, 24:423-432

Eklof B, et.al. CEAP classification for chronic venous disorders consensus statement.J Vasc Surg 2004, 40(6):1248-1252.

Lloyd-Smith E, Kerr T, Hogg RS, Li K, Montaner JSG, Wood E Prevalence and correlates of abscesses among a cohort of injection drug users. Harm Reduct J 2005; 2:24 10.1186/1477-7517-2-24

Syed FF, Beeching NJ: Lower-limb deep-vein thrombosis in a general hospital: risk factors, оutcomes and the contribution of intravenous drug use. QJM-An Int J Med 2005, 98:139-145.

Cooke VA, Fletcher AK: Deep vein thrombosis among injecting drug users in Sheffield.Emerg Med J 2006, 23:777-779.

Behera A, Menakuru SR, Jindal R: Vascular complications of drug abuse: An Indian experience. ANZ J Surg 2003, 73:1004-1007.

Kozelj M, Kobilica N, Flis V: Infected femoral pseudoaneurysms from intravenous drug abuse in young adults. Wien Klin Wochen 2006, 118:71-75.

Richard Senbanjo, Tracey Tipping, Neil Hunt and John Stran. Injecting drug use via femoral vein puncture: preliminary findings of a point-of-care ultrasound service for opioid-dependent groin injectors in treatment. Harm Reduction Journal 2012, 9:6

Syed FF, Beeching NJ: Lower-limb deep-vein thrombosis in a general hospital: risk factors, outcomes and the contribution of intravenous drug use. QJM-An Int J Med 2005, 98:139-145.

Pieper B, Kirsner RS, Templin TN, Birk TJ: Injection drug use - An understudied cause of venous disease. Arch Dermatol 2007, 143:1305-1309.

Maliphant J, Scott J: Use of the femoral vein ('groin injecting') by a sample of needle exchange clients in Bristol, UK. Harm Reduction Journal 2005, 2:6.

Irish C, Maxwell R, Dancox M, Brown P, Trotter C, Verne J, Shaw M: Skin and soft tissue infections and vascular disease among drug users, England.Emerging Infectious Diseases 2007, 13:1510-1511.

Finnie A, Nicolson P: Injecting drug use: implications for skin and wound management.Br J Nurs 2002,11(6):S17-S28.

Acquaro J: Managing a chronic wound in a heroin user. Wounds Int 2012, 3(94):24-25

Powell G: Wound care for injecting drug users: part 1. Nurs Stand 2011, 25(46):51-58

Alison F Coull, Iain Atherton, Avril Taylor, Andrew E Watterson.Prevalence of skin problems and leg ulceration in a sample of young injecting drug users.Harm Reduction Journal 2014, 11:22

Aneta Spasovska Trajanovska, Liljana Ignjatova. Correlation between Duration of Treatment and Cortisol Plasma Level in Methadone Maintained Patients. Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems 16(1s): 17-54, 11th European EUROPAD Congress, UK, Abstract book,2014

Aneta Spasovska Trajanovska, Viktorija Vujovic, Liljana Ignjatova, Danijela Janicevic-Ivanovska, Aleksandar Cibisev. Sexual Dysfunction as a Side Effect of Hyperprolactinemia in Methadone Maintenance Therapy.Med Arh. 2013; 67(1): 48-50

Scott E . "Cortisol and Stress: How to Stay Healthy". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2011;1024 (1):138–146.

Puigdollers E., Domingo-Salvany A., Brugal M.T., Torrens M., Alvarós J.,Castillo C.,Magrí N. Characteristics of heroin addicts entering methadone maintenance treatment: quality of life and gender. Subst Use Misuse, 39(9), 1353-1368.2004

Michael Weinborn et.al. Time-Based Prospective Memory Predicts Engagement in Risk Behaviors Amongst Substance Users: Results from Clinical and Nonclinical Samples. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. Mar 2013; 19(3): 284–294.

EV Nunes, MA Sullivan, FR Levin, Treatment of depression in patients with opiate dependence. Biol Psychiatry. 56,2004;p.793–802 . doi:10.1016/j. biopsych.2004.06.037

EV Nunes, BJ Rounsaville, Comorbidity of substance use with depression and other mental disorders: from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) to DSM-V. Addiction. 101, 2006;p.89–96.

M Pacini, I Maremmani, Methadone reduces the need for antipsychotic and antimanic agents in heroin addicts hospitalized for manic and/or acute psychotic episodes. Heroin Addict Relat Clin Probl. 7,2005;p. 43–48.

Pani P. P., Maremmani I., Trogu E., Gessa G. L., Ruiz P., Akiskal H.Delineating the psychic structure of substance abuse and addictions: Should anxiety, mood and impulse-control dysregulation be included? J Affect Disord. 2010;122: 185-197.

Kenneth Minkoff, Comprehensive Continuous Integrated System of Care, Psychopharmacology Practice Guidelines for Individuals with Co-occurring Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders (COD)January, 2005

www.bhrm.org (Accessed Nov.2014)

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Text Revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.

Douglas R. Dolnak, Treating Patients for Comorbid Depression, Anxiety Disorders, and Somatic Illnesses.J Am Osteopath Assoc. 106(Suppl 2):S9–S14, 2006

Kessler RC, Keller MB, Wittchen HU. The epidemiology of generalized anxiety disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am.2001; 24(1):19-39.

Magee WJ, Eaton WW, Wittchen HU, McGonagle KA, Kessler RC. Agoraphobia, simple phobia, and social phobia in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996;53:159–168.

Roy-Byrne PP, Stang P, Wittchen HU, Ustun B, Walters EE, Kessler RC. Lifetime panic depression comorbidity in the Ntional Comorbidity Survey. Association with symptoms, impairment, course and help-seeking. Br J Psychiatry. 2000;176:229–235.

Esposito E, Barbui C, Patten SB. Patterns of benzodiazepine use in a Canadian population sample. Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc. 2009 Jul-Sep;18(3):248-54.

Carpentier PJ, Krabbe PF, van Gogh MT, Knapen LJ, Buitelaar JK, de Jong CA. Psychiatric comorbidity reduces quality of life in chronic methadone maintained patients. Am J Addict. 2009;18(6):470-80.

Pélissolo A, Maniere F, Boutges B, Allouche M, Richard-Berthe C, Corruble E. Anxiety and depressive disorders in 4,425 long term benzodiazepine users in general practice. Encephale. 2007 Jan-Feb;33(1):32-8.

Merikangas KR. “Anxiety Disorders: Epidemiology” (Chapter 14.2) in Sadock BJ and Sadock VA (Eds). Kaplan & Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry (8th Edition). Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, New York,2008; p.1720

Wittchen, H.-U., Jonsson, B., Olesen, J.Towards a better understanding of the size and burden and cost of brain disorders in Europe. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. 15, 2005; p. 355–356.

Wolitzky-Taylor K, Operskalski JT, Ries R, Craske MG, Roy-Byrne P.Understanding and treating comorbid anxiety disorders in substance users: review and future directions. J Addict Med.2011;5(4):233-47.

Castle DJ. Anxiety and substance use: layers of complexity. Expert Rev Neurother. 2008;8(3):493-501.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn), Text Revision (DSMIV-TR). American Psychiatric Association, Arlington, 2000.

Ressler KJ, Nemeroff CB. Role of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety disorders.Depress Anxiety 12(Suppl 1):2. 2000.

Charney DS, Mihic SJ, Harris RA. Hypnotics and sedatives (Chapter 16). The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th ed. 2008.

Goodman WK.Selecting pharmacotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder.J Clin Psychiatry.2004;65 :13:8-13.

Hearon BA, Calkins A, Halperin DM, McHugh, Murray H, Otto M. Anxiety sensitivity and illicit sedative use among opiate-dependent women and men. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2011 Jan;37(1):43-7.

Fareed A, et.al. High dose versus moderate dose methadone maintenance: is there a better outcome? J Addict Dis. 2009 Oct; 28(4):399-405.

A.G.I. Maremmani, et.al. Substance abuse and psychosis. The strange case of opioids. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. 2014; 18: 287-302

Fareed A, Casarella J, Amar R, Vayalapalli S, Drexler K. Benefits of retention in methadone maintenance and chronic medical conditions as risk factors for premature death among older heroin addicts. J Psychiatr Pract. 2009;15(3):227-34

Grant B. F., Stinson F. S., Dawson D. A., Chou S.P., Dufour M. C.Prevalence and co-occurrence of substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry.2004, 61:(8) 807-816.

Starcevic V.The reappraisal of benzodiazepines in the treatment of anxiety and related disorders. Expert Rev Neurother. 2014; 14(11):1275-86.

Benningfield MM, et.al. Opioid dependence during pregnancy: relationships of anxiety and depression symptoms to treatment outcomes. Addiction. 2012 ;107 Suppl 1:74-82.

Brienza, R.S.et.al.Depression among needle exchange program and methadone maintenance clients. J. Subst. Abuse Treat. 18,2000;p. 331–337.

Teesson. M., Havard, A., Fairbairn, S., Ross, J., Lynskey, M., Darke, S. Depression among entrants to treatment for heroin dependence in the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS): prevalence, correlates and treatment seeking. Drug Alcohol Depend. 78, 2005; p.309–315.

Peles, E., Schreiber, S., Naumovsky Y., Adelson, M. Depression in methadone maintenance treatment patients: rate and risk factors. J. Affect. Disord. 99,2007;p. 213–220.

Pani PP, Vacca R, Trogu E, Amato L, Davoli M. Pharmacological treatment for depression during opioid agonist treatment for opioid dependence.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010

Baharudin A. et.al. Depression in male patients on methadone maintenance therapy. Asia Pac Psychiatry. 2013 Apr; 5 Suppl 1:67-73.

Davis L, Uezato A, Newell JM, Frazier E. Major depression and comorbid substance use disorders. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2008;21(1):14-8.

G. Moussas et al. 1754 – Psychiatric symptoms in patients on methadone maintenance treatment. European Psychiatry.Volume 28, Supplement 1, 2013.

Cheng-Fang Yen et al. Unfavorable attitudes toward receiving methadone maintenance therapy and associated factors among the inmates using intravenous heroin. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences 2011.

Ethan Moitra, Bradley J Anderson, Michael D Stein. Perceived stress and substance use in methadone-maintained smokers. Drug and alcohol dependence,2013.

Gillespie CF, Nemeroff CB. Hypercortisolemia and depression. Psychosom Med.2005; 67 Suppl 1:S26-8.

Dai, Xing; Thavundayil, Joseph; Santella, Sandra; Gianoulakis, Christina. "Response of the HPA-axis to alcohol and stress as a function of alcohol dependence and family history of alcoholism".Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2007.32 (3):293–305.

Sher L. Daily hassles, cortisol, and the pathogenesis of depression. Med Hypotheses. 2004;62(2):198-02.

Gold PW, Drevets WC, Charney DS. New insights into the role of cortisol and the glucocorticoid receptor in severe depression. Biol Psychiatry.2002;52(5):381-5.

Aneta Spasovska Trajanovska, Liljana Ignjatova. Correlation between Duration of Treatment and Cortisol Plasma Level in Methadone Maintained Patients. Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems 16(1s): 17-54, 11th European EUROPAD Congress, UK, Abstract book; 2014

Liljana Ignjatova, Aneta Spasovska Trajanovska. Correlation between Methadone Dosage, Cortisol Plasma Level and Depression in Methadone Maintained Patients Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems 16(1s): 17-54, 11th European EUROPAD Congress, UK, Abstract book; 2014




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/mmej.2015.50006

Метрика на труд

Внесува метрика ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks



Печатарски права (c) 2015 Татјана Петрушевска

##submission.license.cc.by-nc-nd4.footer##



Издавач: АјДи Дизајн 2012/ДООЕЛ Скопје, Република Македонија