Vol. 12 No. 2 (2020): Archives of Public Health
Oral Health

Local etiological factors for the appearance of early childhood caries

Olga Kokoceva Ivanovska
Department for Children Preventive Dental Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia

Published 2020-07-16


  • circular caries,
  • early childhood caries,
  • primarry teeth,
  • babybottle,
  • breast-feeding

How to Cite

Kokoceva Ivanovska O. Local etiological factors for the appearance of early childhood caries. Arch Pub Health [Internet]. 2020 Jul. 16 [cited 2022 Dec. 3];12(2):46-55. Available from: https://id-press.eu/aph/article/view/5218


In the early childhood, at the age of 1 to 1.5 year, immediately after teeth eruption, a special form of caries which spreads only over the primary teeth, often appears. The aim of this study was to determine local factors that affect the occurrence of this dental disease in early childhood.Materials and methods: Our examinees were children 1.5-3.5 years old, where during the standard check-ups we diagnosed starting phases of circular caries: initial lesion (white spot) and superficial form. The mothers of children with diagnosed circular caries were provided with a pre-prepared questionnaire containing data on: the length of the breastfeeding period, the infant's feeding with a bottle and the most commonly consumed contents, oral hygiene habits after feeding the infant, and tooth brushing. Results: Only 30% of mothers breastfed (children) by the 6-th month and 40% by the third month and shorter. About 15% of mothers received fluoride prophylaxis during pregnancy and lactation. The largest percentage of respondents (48%) were fed with a baby bottle, over a prolonged period of time, up to three or more years, mostly with industrial juices (48%). They were mostly consumed at night (40%). Oral-hygiene measures after bottle feeding were observedonly in 16%. The daily frequency of tooth brushing in young children is at most once a day (32%). Conclusion: The analysis of the results showed that circular caries is more common in children who have been breastfed for shorter period and who used the bottle in their daily diet. The most commonly consumed are industrial juices, which are considered "cariogenic drinks" because they are potentially dangerous to primary teeth, especially when consumed at night (pH of saliva drops to 0).


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