Vol. 13 No. 1 (2021): Archives of Public Health (OnlineFirst)

Prognostic factors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia –review of literature

Kata Martinova
University Clinic for chidren's diseases; Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Faculty of Medicine, Republic of North Macedonia

Published 2021-03-15


  • acute lymphoblastic leukemia,
  • children,
  • prognostic factors,
  • minimal residual disease,
  • survival

How to Cite

Јовановска А, Мартинова К. Prognostic factors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia –review of literature. Arch Pub Health [Internet]. 2021 Mar. 15 [cited 2021 Apr. 16];13(1):1-16. Available from: https://id-press.eu/aph/article/view/5732


The treatment outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)has remarkably improved over the recent decades, leading to a 5-year overall survival rate up to 90%. This impressive achievement is mainly due to the use of effective multi-agent chemotherapy regimens and the precise stratification of patients into risk groups based on well defined prognostic factors including the clinical features that are present at diagnosis, biologic and genetic features of leukemia cells, and early response to treatment. Patients classified as low risk are treated with less intensive therapy, whereas more aggressive regimens are reserved for those with high-risk features. Currently, minimal residual disease (MRD) is the most important and independent predictor of treatment outcome. This review will describe the clinical, biological, and response-based features and current evidence supporting their clinical application in childhood ALL.



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