- urinary incontinence,
- physical therapy,
How to Cite
Urinary incontinence is the inability to control urination with spectrum of disturbances from periodical urinary leaks to complete inability to retain urine. It occurs more often in elderly and in women. Urinary incontinence has a great impact on general health and may reduce the quality of life. There are several types: stress urinary incontinence, urgent urinary incontinence, neurogenic urinary incontinence, overflow urinary incontinence. Stress urinary incontinence is the most frequent one and is due to pelvic floor muscle weakness. For assessment and treatment of these patients the individual approach is warranted. The treatment of these patients includes medications, behavioral therapy, biofeedback, pelvic floor muscle training, electrical stimulation, magnetic stimulation and surgery. Non-surgical treatment might be effective to prevent surgery. Rehabilitation treatment with pelvic floor exercises and physical modalities for patients with urinary incontinence is important for recovery of the urinary continence and improvement of quality of life in these patients.
- Haylen BT, de Ridder D, Freeman R M, et al. An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for female pelvic floor dysfunction. Int Urogynecol J 2010; 21:5–26
- Landefeld CS, Bowers BJ, Feld AD, et al. National Institutes of Health state-of-the-science conference statement: prevention of fecal and urinary incontinence in adults. Ann Intern Med 2008;148(6):449–458
- Milsom I, Gyhagen M. The prevalence of urinary incontinence. Climacteric 2019;22(3):217-222.
- Hersh L, Salzman B. Clinical management of urinary incontinence in women. Am Fam Physician 2013;87(9):634-40.
- Линсенмејер АТ, Стоун МЏ, Стајнс АС. Неврогена дисфункција на мочниот меур и на цревата. Во: Делиса АЏ. Физикална медицина и рехабилитација. Принципи и практика. Том 2. Скопје: Табернакул; 2012:1618-1641
- Pantazis K, Freeman RM. Investigation and treatment of urinary incontinence. Curr Obstet Gynaecol 2006;16:344–352.
- Medical Advisory Secretariat. Behavioural interventions for urinary incontinence in community-dwelling seniors: an evidence-based analysis. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser 2008;8(3):1-52.
- Vadala M, Palmieri B, Malagoli A, Laurino C. High-power magnetotherapy: a new weapon in urinary incontinence? Lower urinary tract symptoms. John Wiley&Sons Australia, Ltd.2017.
- Lukacz ES, Santiago-Lastra Y, Albo ME, Brubaker L. Urinary incontinence in women: a review. JAMA 2017;318(16):1592-1604.
- DeMaagd A G, Davenport C T. Management of urinary incontinence. P T. 2012; 37(6): 345-361, 361B-361H.
- Dumoulin C, Cacciari LP, Hay Smith EJC. Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment, or inactive control treatments, for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018; 2018(10): CD005654.
- Riemsma R, Hagen S, Kirschner-Hermanns R, et al. Can incontinence be cured? A systematic review of cure rates. BMC Med 2017;15(1):63.
- Herbison GP, Dean N. Weighted vaginal cones for urinary incontinence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;(7):CD002114.
- Herderschee R, Hay-Smith EJ, Herbison GP, Roovers JP, Heineman MJ. Feedback or biofeedback to augment pelvic floor muscle training for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;(7):CD009252
- Ramírez-García I, Blanco-Ratto L, Kauffmann S, Carralero-Martínez A, Sánchez E. Efficacy of transcutaneous stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve compared to percutaneous stimulation in idiopathic overactive bladder syndrome: Randomized control trial. Neurourol Urodyn 2019; 38(1):261-268.
- Moossdorff-Steinhauser HF, Berghmans B. Effects of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation on adult patients with overactive bladder syndrome: a systematic review. Neurourol Urodyn 2013;32(3): 206-214.
- Stewart F, Berghmans B, Bø K, Glazener CM. Electrical stimulation with non-implanted devices for stress urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017;12:CD012390.
- Jajić Y. Interferentne struje. U Fizikalna i rehabilitacijska medicina:osnove i liječenje. Ur. Jajić I. i sur. Medicinska Naklada, Zagreb, 2008, 164 - 171.
- Klaus F. Functional magnetic stimulation, a new option in the therapy
- of incontinence. Available from: www.urologie-salzburg.at
- Hoscan MB, Dilmen C, Perk H, Soyupek S, Armagan A. Tukel O, Ekinci M. Extracorporeal magnetic innervation for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence: results of two-year follow-up. Urol Int 2008;81(2):167-72.
- Yamanishi T, Homma Y, Nishizawa O, Yasuda K, Yokoyama O; SMN-X Study Group.Multicenter, randomized, sham-controlled study on the efficacy of magnetic