Vol. 13 No. 1 (2021): Archives of Public Health (OnlineFirst)
Oral Health

Оral hygiene and fluoride influence on dental health in early childhood

Olga Kokoceva-Ivanovska
Department of Children Preventive Dental Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia

Published 2021-04-15

Keywords

  • OHI index,
  • initial lesion,
  • superficial lesion,
  • fluoride treatment

How to Cite

1.
Kokoceva-Ivanovska O. Оral hygiene and fluoride influence on dental health in early childhood. Arch Pub Health [Internet]. 2021 Apr. 15 [cited 2021 May 5];13(1):1-12. Available from: https://id-press.eu/aph/article/view/5997

Abstract

Early childhood caries occurs immediately after the eruption of deciduous teeth. During this period, children are too young to be able to properly implement oral hygiene. Consequently, it is at a negligible level, with plenty of soft plaque on the deciduous tooth surfaces. The objective of this investigation was to determine the correlation between oral hygiene (shown with the OHI index) and the initial stages of early childhood caries: initial lesion (white spot) and superficial form, before and after local fluoride treatment. Material and methods: For determining the OHI index among our examinees we used the method of Green-Vermillion. It was determined in 117 examinees twice, during the first visit and immediately before physiological replacement of deciduous teeth. Patients were two to three years of age, diagnosed with initial stages of early childhood caries and fluoride preparate (amino fluoride solution) was applied once a week, for 6 months. Results: In 30 subjects treated with local fluoride treatment from both basic groups (with initial and superficial lesions), just before the physiological change of the teeth, we received a statistically significant improvement in the OHI index (p = 0.000038; p = 0.00006) at the end from the examination. Conclusion: From the conducted analysis of the obtained results, we can conclude that the level of oral hygiene is correlated with the progression of changes in the enamel. Oral hygiene and fluoride treatment significantly reduce soft tissue levels and improve the OHI index.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

  1. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Policy on Early Childhood Caries (ECC): classifications, consequences, and preventive strategies. Referencemanual. Pediatr Dent 2015;37(6):50−52
  2. De Grauwe A, Aps JK, Martens LC. Early childhood caries (ECC): what’s in a name? Eur J Paediatr Dent 2004; 5 (2):62–70.
  3. Kokoceva-Ivanovska O, Georgiev Z, Sarakinova O, Shevale A, Todorovska G, Mijovska A, Natasha S. Early Childhood Caries. Physioacta 2017; 3(11): 51-56
  4. Markova N. Early Childhood Caries. Sofia.2003;63(1):42-50
  5. Тодоровска Г, Симјановска Љ, Тодоровска К, Кокочева –Ивановска О, Жабокова- Билбилова Е. Значењето на оралното здравје во периодот на млечна дентиција. Vox medici 2017; 25(96):495-500
  6. Ambarkova V, Todorovska G, Kokocheva-Ivanovska O, Simjanovska Lj. The importance of sugar as predisposing factor for tooth decay. International Journal of Dentistry Research 2018; 3(1):1-4.
  7. Kokoceva-Ivanovska Olga. The appearance of the “Baby bottle caries. Macedonian pharmaceutical bulletin 2017;64 (2): 19 – 22.
  8. Leong PM1, Gussy MG, Barrow SY, de Silva-Sanigorski A, Waters E. A systematic review of risk factors during the first year of life for early childhood caries.. Int J Paediatr Dent 2013;23(4):235-50
  9. Fontana M. The clinical, environmental, and behavioral factors that foster early childhood caries: evidence for caries risk assessment. Pediatr Dent 2015;37(3):217−25
  10. Roopa KB, Pathak S, Poornima P, Neena IE. White spot lesions: A literature review. J Pediatr Dent 2015;3:
  11. Veerkamp JSJ, Weerheijm KL. Nursing bottle caries: The importance of a development perspective. J Dent Child 1995; 62(6): 381
  12. Kokoceva-Ivanovska O. Early childhood caries: Following of the early developing stages and possibilities for its prevention. Ph.D. Thesis. Faculty of Dental Medicine, University Cyril & Methodius, Skopje, Macedonia. 2011:137-159
  13. Kokoceva – Ivanovska O, Mijoska A, Gligorova D. EDS – Quantitative microanalysis of calcium and phosphate in the initial lesion of a circular caries before and after the topical fluoride treatment. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 2016; 7(3): 2403-2406
  14. Douglass JM, Douglass AB, Silk HJ. A practical guide to infant oral health. Am Fam Physician 2004;70(11):2113-20
  15. Царчев М. Превентивна стоматологија. Скопје, 2006
  16. Vulovic M. Beloica D, Gajic M, Stefanovic R. Preventivna stomatologija, Beograd: 2002
  17. Rosin-Grget K, Lincir1 I, Tudja M. Effect of amine fluoride on enamel surface morphology. Coll Antropol 2000; 2: 501–508.
  18. Chaffee BW, Feldens CA, Rodrigues PH, Vitolo MR. Feeding practices in infancy associated with caries incidence in early childhood. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2015;43:338−48
  19. Douglass JM, Douglass AB, Silk HJ. A practical guide to infant oral health. Am Fam Physician 2004;70(11):2113-20.
  20. Todorovska K, Kokoceva-Ivanovska O, Markovska Arsovska M. Prevention in pediatric dentistry-health and bright smile. Physioacta 2016; 10 (1): 105-111.
  21. Cury A, Andaló Tenuta LM. Enamel remineralization: controlling the caries disease or treating early caries lesions?. Braz Oral Res 23(Spec Iss 1) 2009:23-30
  22. Amaechi BT, van Loveren C. Fluorides and non-fluoride remineralization systems. In: van Loveren C, editor. Toothpastes. Monogr oral Sci. Basel: Karger; 2013;15–26
  23. Olga Kokoceva-Ivanovska.The beginning phases of the early childhood caries (circular caries) - clinical evaluation of remineralization. Macedonian pharmaceutical bulletin, 2020; 66(2)
  24. Oliveira BH, Salazar M, Carvalho DM, Falcao A, Campos K, Nadanovsky P. Biannual fluoride varnish applications and caries incidence in preschoolers: a 24-month follow-up randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Caries Res 2014;48(3):228−36
  25. Amaechi BT, Ramalingam K, Mensinksai PK, Narjibfard K, Mackey AC, KarlinseyRL. Remineralization of eroded enamel by a NaF rinse containing a novel calcium phosphate agent in an in situ model: a pilot study. Clin Cosmet Investig Dent 2010;2:93–100
  26. Garcia R, Borrelli B, Dhar V, Douglass J, Gomez FR, Hieftje K, et al. Progress in early childhood caries and opportunities in research, policy, and clinical management. Pediatr Dent 2015;37(3):294−9
  27. Najibfard K, Ramalingam K, Chedjieu I, Amaechi BT. Remineralization of early caries by nano-hydroxyapatite dentifrice. J Clin Dent 2011;22(05):139–43
  28. Cochrane NJ, Saranathan S, Cai F, Cross KJ, Reynolds EC. Enamel subsurface lesion remineralisation with casein phosphopeptide stabilised solutions of calcium, phosphate and fluoride. Caries Res 2008;42:88–97.
  29. Kobašlija S, Vulićević Z, Jurić H, i sar. Minimalna invazivna terapija. Sarajevo: Dobra knjiga; 2012.
  30. International Caries Classification and Management System (ICCMS™) Guide for Practitioners and Educators. www.kcl.ac.uk/sspp/kpi/projects/healthpolicy/global-caries-management.