Vol. 11 No. 1 (2019): Archives of Public Health
Clinical Science

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among patients with schizophrenia in the Center for mental health – “Prolet”, Psychiatric Hospital -Skopje

Viktor Isjanovski
Center for Mental Health – “Prolet”, Psychiatric Hospital –Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
Igor Isjanovski
Medical Faculty Skopje, University Ss Ciril and Methodius, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia

Published 2019-04-06

Keywords

  • schizophrenia,
  • metabolic syndrome,
  • risk factors

How to Cite

1.
Исјановски В, Исјановски И. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among patients with schizophrenia in the Center for mental health – “Prolet”, Psychiatric Hospital -Skopje. Arch Pub Health [Internet]. 2019 Apr. 6 [cited 2022 Sep. 30];11(1):95-103. Available from: https://id-press.eu/aph/article/view/2861

Abstract

Schizophrenia has been associated with an increased risk of cardio-metabolic morbidity and mortality. Metabolic syndrome (MS), as a reliable predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, has also been shown to be more prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of  MS in a sample of patients with schizophrenia in the Center for Mental Health – “Prolet”, Psychiatric Hospital -Skopje, and the potential risk factors associated with it. Materials and methods: 50 patients with schizophrenia were recruited. All subjects provided a fasted sample of venous blood to measure high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides and glucose levels. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Tretmant Panel III (NCEP ATD III) criteria. Results: The prevalence of MS in patients with schizophrenia was 46.0%. Increasing body mass index (BMI) was identified to be significantly associated with the prevalence of MS. Conclusion: This study found a high prevalence of MS in patients with schizophrenia, and that BMI might be a risk factor in the development of MS. This information is clinically relevant as BMI is routinely measured in psychiatric practice today, and could be used to monitor for development of MS in schizophrenia.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

  1. Lee J. et al. Metabolic Syndrome in Schizophrenia. Annals Academy of Medicine 2012; 41(10): 457-462.
  2. Meyer JM, Stahl SM. The metabolic syndrome and schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2009; 119:4-14.
  3. Osborn DP, Levy G, Nazareth I, Petersen I, Islam A, King MB. Relative risk of cardiovascular and cancer mortality in people with severe mental illness from the United Kingdom's General Practice Research Database. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64:242-9.
  4. Lin PI, Shuldiner AR. Rethinking the genetic basis for comorbidity of schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. Schizophr Res 2010; 123:234-43.
  5. Mc Creadie RG, Scottish Schizophrenia Lifestyle G. Diet, smoking and cardiovascular risk in people with schizophrenia: descriptive study. Br J Psychiatry 2003; 183:534-9.
  6. Martynikhin I, Tanyanskiy D, Rotar O, Solntsev V, Sokolian N, et al. Schizophrenia and risk of metabolic syndrome. Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy 2013; 2: 15–20.
  7. Brown S, Kim M, Mitchell C, Inskip H. Twenty-five year mortality of a community cohort with schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 2010; 196: 116–121.
  8. Osby U, Correia N, Brandt L, Ekbom A, Sparen P. Mortality and causes of death in schizophrenia in Stockholm county, Sweden. Schizophr Res 2000; 45: 21–28.
  9. Laursen TM. Life expectancy among persons with schizophrenia of bipolar affective disorder. Schizophr Res 2011; 131: 101–104.
  10. Mc Evoy JP, Meyer JM, Goff DC, Nasrallah HA, Davis SM, Sullivan L, et al. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia: baseline results from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial and comparison with national estimates from NHANES III. Schizophr Res 2005;80:19–2.
  11. Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA 2002; 287:356–359.
  12. Heiskanen T, Niskanen L, Lyytikainen, R, Saarinen PI, Hintikka J. Metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry 2003; 64: 575–579.
  13. Cohn T, Prud’homme D, Streiner D, Kameh H, Remington G. Characterizing coronary heart disease risk in chronic schizophrenia: High Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome. Can J Psychiatry 2004; 49: 753–760.
  14. De Hert M, van Winkel R, Van Eyck D, Hanssens L, Wampers M, Scheen A, et al. Prevalence of diabetes, metabolic syndrome and metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenia over the course of the illness: a cross-sectional study. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2006; 2: 14.
  15. Bobes J, Arango C, Aranda P, Carmena R, Garcia-Garcia M, CLAMORS Study Collaborative Group, et al. Cardiovascular and metabolic risk in outpatients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotics: results of the CLAMORS Study. Schizophr Res 2007; 90:162-73.
  16. De Hert M, Schreurs V, Sweers K, Van Eyck D, Hanssens L, Sinko S,et al. Typical and atypical antipsychotics differentially affect long-term incidence rates of the metabolic syndrome in first-episode patients with schizophrenia: a retrospective chart review. Schizophr Res 2008; 101:295-303.
  17. Huang MC, Lu ML, Tsai CJ, Chen PY, Chiu CC, Jian DL, et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in Taiwan. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2009; 120:274-80.
  18. Koponen HJ, Hakko HH, Saari KM, Lindeman SM, Karvonen KM, Isohanni MK, et al. The prevalence and predictive value of individual criteria for metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia: a Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study. World J Biol Psychiatry 2010; 11:262-7.
  19. Sugawara N, Yasui-Furukori N, Sato Y, Umeda T, Kishida I, Yamashita H, et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among patients with schizophrenia in Japan. Schizophr Res 2010; 123:244-50.
  20. Saddichha S, Manjunatha N, Ameen S, Akhtar S. Metabolic syndrome in first episode schizophrenia - a randomized double-blind controlled, short-term prospective study. Schizophr Res 2008; 101:266-72.
  21. Schorr SG, Slooff CJ, Bruggeman R, Taxis K. The incidence of metabolic syndrome and its reversal in a cohort of schizophrenic patients followed for one year. J Psychiatr Res 2009; 43:1106-11.
  22. Tirupati S, Chua LE. Body mass index as a screening test for metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. Australas Psychiatry 2007;15:470-3.
  23. Mousa FA, Dessoki HH, El Kateb SM, Ezzat AA, Soltan MR. Metabolic syndrome in psychiatric patients (comparative study). Egyptian Journal of Psychiatry 2017; 38:179-191
  24. Jakovljević M, Crncević Z, Ljubicić D, Babić D, Topić R, Sarić M. Mental disorders and metabolic syndrome: a fatamorgana or warning reality? Psychiatr Danub 2007;19:76–86.
  25. Taslim S, Tai ES. The relevance of the metabolic syndrome. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2009; 38:29-5.
  26. Newcomer JW. Antipsychotic medications: metabolic and cardiovascular risk. J Clin Psychiatry 2007; 68(Suppl 4):8–13.
  27. Newcomer JW. Metabolic considerations in the use of antipsychotic medications: a review of recent evidence. J Clin Psychiatry 2007; 68(Suppl 1):20–27.
  28. Allison DB, Mentore JL, Heo M, Chandler LP, Cappelleri JC, Infante MC, et al. Antipsychotic-induced weight-gain: a comprehensive research synthesis. Am J Psychiatry. 1999; 156:1686–1696.
  29. Sweileh et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among patients with Schizophrenia in Palestine. BMC Psychiatry 2012; 12:235
  30. Henderson DC, Cagliero E, Copeland PM, Borba CP, Evins E, Hayden D, et al. Glucose metabolism in patients with schizophrenia treated with atypical antipsychotic agents. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005; 62: 19–28.
  31. Lindenmayer JP, Czobor P, Volavka J, Citrome L, Sheitman B, McEvoy JP, et al. Changes in glucose and cholesterol levels in patients with schizophrenia treated with typical and atypical antipsychotics. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160:290–296.
  32. Thakore JH. Metabolic disturbance in first-episode schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 2004; 184 (Suppl. 47): 76–79.
  33. De Hert M, Dekker JM, Wood D. et al. Cardiovascular disease and diabetes in people with several mental illness position statement from the European Psychiatric Association (EPA), supported by the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Psichiatry 2009; 24(6): 412-424.
  34. De Hert M, Correll CU, Bobes J, et al. Physical illness in patients with several mental disorders, prevalence, impact of medications and disparites in health care, World Psychiatry 2011; 10(1): 52-77.
  35. Mitchell AJ, Vancampfort D, Sweers K, et al, Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenia and related disorders- a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2013;39(2): 306-318.
  36. De Hert MA, et al. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotic medication. Schizophr Res 2006; 83(1):87–93.
  37. Hagg S, et al. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among a Swedish cohort of patients with schizophrenia. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2006; 21(2):93–98.
  38. Suvisaari JM, et al: Metabolic syndrome among persons with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders in a general population survey. J Clin Psychiatry 2007; 68(7):1045–1055.
  39. Meyer JM, et al. Change in metabolic syndrome parameters with antipsychotic treatment in the CATIE Schizophrenia Trial: prospective data from phase 1. Schizophr Res 2008; 101(1–3):273–286.