- coronavirus SARS-CoV-2,
- oral health,
- dental care
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Lidushka Vasilevska, Elena Kjosevska, Tanja Lekovska-Stoicovska
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented global crisis in public health. Professionals in dental institutions, dental associations and regulatory bodies face various challenges in providing dental care and prevention of oral health of the population, as well as protection of patients and practitioners from the health threat of SARS-CoV-2 virus. The aim of this paper is to present the current findings and views regarding the information on the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the need to implement protocols to protect patients and dental practitioners from the health threat posed by the virus, in compliance with medically relevant regulations.Material and methods: References from WHO, FDI and published papers in international scientific journals in this relatively short period were consulted and they presented: updated epidemiological and seroepidemiological information, review of response measures implemented in EU countries / EEA, UK and countries around the world and response options to minimize the risk of recurrence of COVID-19. Results: Viral pneumonia that appeared on February 11, 2020, was named "Coronavirus (COVID 19)" by the WHO, while the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) proposed the name "SARS-CoV-2" for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis of this corona virus. Dentists/doctors of dental medicine should be familiar with transmission of SARS-CoV-2, how to identify patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and what measures should be taken for protection during the intervention in order to prevent its transmission. There are recommendations for infection control measures that should be followed by the dentists/doctors of dental medicine. The fact that aerosols and drops have been considered for major SARS-CoV-2 propagation routes has been emphasized. If these measures are not undertaken, then the dental office can potentially expose patients to cross-infection.
Conclusion: The epidemiological situation around the world is changing dynamically, but patients should not be left without urgent medical help. Oral health team members are required to update their knowledge and skills regarding the prevention, diagnosis and management of communicable diseases that can be transmitted in a clinical setting and to stick to the standard precautions to protect patients from infections as well as protect themselves.
2. Center for Disease Control, Summary of Infection Prevention Practices in Dental Settings: Basic Expectations for Safe Care. US Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Oral Health; 2016. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/oralhealth/infectioncontrol/guidelines/index.htm
3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Food and Drug Administration; 2015. Reprocessing Medical Devices in Health Care Settings: Validation Methods and Labeling.
4. FDI Policy Statement Sustainability in Dentistry, 2017. Adopted August 2017, Madrid, Spain. Available at: https://www.fdiworlddental.org/resources/policy-statements-and-resolution...
5. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013. Updated U.S. Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to HIV and recommendations for post exposure prophylaxis. Available at: https://npin.cdc.gov/publication/updated-us-public-health-service-guidel...
6. Wax RS, Christian MD. Practical recommendations for critical care and anesthesiology teams caring for novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) patients. Can J Anaesth 2020;
7. Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 2020; 579: 270-273.
8. Wahba L, Jain N, Fire AZ, Shoura MJ, Artiles KL, McCoy MJ, et al. Identification of a pangolin niche for a 2019-nCoV-like coronavirus through an extensive meta-metagenomic search. Preprint from bioRxiv, 14 Feb 2020
DOI: 10.1101/2020.02.08.939660 .
9. Wang Y, Chen Y, Qin Q. Unique epidemiological and clinical features of the emerging 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) implicate special control measures. J Med Virol 2020; doi: 10.1002/jmv.25748.
10. Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Schroeder S, Krüger N, Herrler T, Erichsen S, et al. SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell 2020.
11. Jiang F, Deng L, Zhang L, et al. Review of the clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). J Gen Intern Med 2020; doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-05762-w.
12. Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet 2020; 395: 514-523.
13. Christiansen GJ. Covid-19: Hype? Hazard? Dental Office Implications? Clin Rep 2020; 13: 1-3.
14.WHO Coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Situation Report 13. WHO 2020.
15. Otter JA, Donskey C, Yezli S, Douthwaite S, Goldenberg SD, Weber DJ. Transmission of SARS and MERS coronaviruses and influenza virus in healthcare settings: the possible role of dry surface contamination. J Hosp Infect 2016; 92: 235e50.
16. Kwok YLA, Gralton J, McLaws ML. Face touching: a frequent habit that has implications for hand hygiene Am J Infect Control 2015; 43: 112-114.
17. Lan L, Xu D, Ye G, Xia C, Wang S, Li Y, et al. Positive RT-PCR test results in patients recovered from COVID-19. JAMA 2020: 27; doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.2783.
18. Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Schroeder S, Mü MA, Drosten C, Pö S, et al. SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell 2020; doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.052.
19. Sabino-Silva R, Jardim ACG, Siqueira WL. Coronavirus COVID-19 impacts to dentistry and potential salivary diagnosis. Clin Oral Investig 2020; doi: 10.1007/s00784-020-03248-x.
20. Peng X, Xu X, Li Y, Cheng L, Zhou X, Ren B. Transmission routes of 2019-nCoV and controls in dental practice. Int J Oral Sci 2020; 12: 9.
21. Neeltje van Doremalen, Trenton Bushmaker, et al. Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med 2020; doi: 10.1056/NEJMC2004973.
22. Huang C, et al.Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet395, 497–506 (2020).
23. Guan WЈ, et al. Clinical characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in China. Preprint at https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.06.20020974v1 (2020).
24. Wang D, et al. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020;323(11):1061-1069.
25. Chan JFW, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet 2020; 395, 514–523.
26. Li Q, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med 2020 https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001316
27. Wu F et al. A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature https://doi.org/ 10.1038/s41586-020-2008-3 (2020).
28. Zhou P et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 2020 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7 .
29. Gorbalenya AE et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: The species and its viruses—a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group. Preprint at https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.07.937862v1 (2020).
30. Kampf, G., Todt, D., Pfaender, S. & Steinmann, E. Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and its inactivation with biocidal agents. J Hosp Infect 2020.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2020.01.022 (2020).
31. Chen J. Pathogenicity and transmissibility of 2019-nCoV—a quick overview and comparison with other emerging viruses. Microb Infect 2020; 22(2):69-71.
32. Cleveland JL et al. Transmission of blood-borne pathogens in US dental health care settings: 2016 update. J Am Dent Assoc 2016;147, 729–738.
33. Harrel SK& Molinari J. Aerosols and splatter in dentistry: a brief review of the literature and infection control implications. J Am Dent Assoc 2004;13: 429–437.
34. Liu L. et al. Epithelial cells lining salivary gland ducts are early target cells of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in the upper respiratory tracts of rhesus macaques. J Virol 2011; 85, 4025–4030.
35. Wei J. & Li Y. Airborne spread of infectious agents in the indoor environment.Am J Infect Control 2016; 44, S102–S108.
36. Larson EL, Early E, Cloonan P, Sugrue S, Parides M. An organizational climate intervention associated with increased handwashing and decreased nosocomial infections. Behav Med 2000; 26: 14-22.
37. Meng L, Hua F, Bian Z. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): emerging and future challenges for dental and oral medicine. J Dent Res 2020; 99(5):481-487.
38. Centers for Disease Control recommendations. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prepare/cleaningdisinfection.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fcoronavirus%2F2019-ncov%2Fcommunity%2Fhome%2Fcleaning-disinfection.html.
39. COVID-19 – zasady postępowania – zalecenia Polskiego Lekarskiego Towarzystwa Radiologicznego i Konsultanta Krajowego w Dziedzinie Radiologii i Diagnostyki Obrazowej. Available at: https://pltr.pl/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/2020.03.23-COVID-zalecenia-PLTR-1-1.pdf
40. WHO recommendations. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/331215/WHO-2019-nCov-IPCPPE_use-2020.1-eng.pdf.
41. Kampf G, Todt D, Pfaender S, Steinmann E. Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and its inactivation with biocidal agents. J Hosp Infect 2020; 104: 246-251.
42. Kozajda A, Bródka K, Szadkowska-Stańczyk I. Factors influencing biosafety level and lai among the staff of medical laboratories. Medycyna Pracy 2013; 64: 473-486.
43. Janowska M, Polz-Dacewicz M, Prystupa A. Wirus Ebola – przeciwnik stale nieodkryty. Medycyna Ogólna i Nauki o Zdrowiu 2012; 18: 379-382.
44. Zielińska-Jankiewicz K, Kozajda A, Szadkowska-Stańczyk I. Zawodowa ekspozycja na czynniki biologiczne i ochrona narażonych na nie pracowników w swietle nowych przepisów prawnych. Medycyna Pracy 2005; 56: 319-323.
45. Filtry HEPA – Vademecum wiedzy o filtrach HEPA, homespot.pl
46. Białoszewski D, Bocian E, Tyski S. Ozonoterapia oraz zastosowanie ozonu w dezynfekcji. Post Microbiol 2012; 51: 177-184.
47. Kuştarci A, Sümer Z, Altunbaş D, Koşum S: Bactericidal effect of KTP laser irradiation against Enterococcus faecalis compared with gaseous ozone: an ex vivo study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009; 107: e73-79.
48. Huth KC, Quirling M, Maier S, Kamereck K, Alkhayer M, Paschos E. Effectiveness of ozone against endontopathogenic microorganisms in a root canal biofilm model. Int Endod J 2009; 42: 3-13.
50. N95 vs FFP3 & FFP2 masks – what’s the difference? Fast Life Hacks 2020. Available at: https://fastlifehacks.com/n95-vs-ffp/.